Contract Name:

SyntheticAsset

Contract Source Code:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity >=0.6.12;
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/math/SafeMath.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/math/Math.sol";
import "./../lib/SafeMath8.sol";
import "./../interfaces/IMultiAssetTreasury.sol";
import "./../interfaces/IDollar.sol";
import "./../ERC20/ERC20Custom.sol";
import "./../Operator.sol";
contract SyntheticAsset is ERC20Custom, IDollar, Operator {
using SafeMath for uint256;
// ERC20
string public symbol;
string public name;
uint8 public constant decimals = 18;
uint256 public constant genesis_supply = 1 ether; // 1 will be minted at genesis for liq pool seeding
// CONTRACTS
address public treasury;
/* ========== MODIFIERS ========== */
modifier onlyPools() {
require(IMultiAssetTreasury(treasury).hasPool(msg.sender), "!pools");
_;
}
/* ========== CONSTRUCTOR ========== */
constructor(
string memory _name,
string memory _symbol,
address _treasury
) public {
name = _name;
symbol = _symbol;
treasury = _treasury;
_mint(_msgSender(), genesis_supply);
}
/* ========== RESTRICTED FUNCTIONS ========== */
// Burn Asset. Can be used by Pool only
function poolBurnFrom(address _address, uint256 _amount) external override onlyPools {
burnFrom(_address, _amount);
emit DollarBurned(_address, msg.sender, _amount);
}
// Mint Asset. Can be used by Pool only
function poolMint(address _address, uint256 _amount) external override onlyPools {
super._mint(_address, _amount);
emit DollarMinted(msg.sender, _address, _amount);
}
function setTreasuryAddress(address _treasury) public onlyOperator {
treasury = _treasury;
}
/* ========== EVENTS ========== */
// Track Asset burned
event DollarBurned(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 amount);
// Track Asset minted
event DollarMinted(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 amount);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity >=0.6.12;
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/Context.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
contract Operator is Context, Ownable {
address private _operator;
event OperatorTransferred(address indexed previousOperator, address indexed newOperator);
constructor() {
_operator = _msgSender();
emit OperatorTransferred(address(0), _operator);
}
function operator() public view returns (address) {
return _operator;
}
modifier onlyOperator() {
require(_operator == msg.sender, "operator: caller is not the operator");
_;
}
function isOperator() public view returns (bool) {
return _msgSender() == _operator;
}
function transferOperator(address newOperator_) public onlyOwner {
_transferOperator(newOperator_);
}
function _transferOperator(address newOperator_) internal {
require(newOperator_ != address(0) && newOperator_ != _operator, "operator: zero address given for new operator");
emit OperatorTransferred(address(0), newOperator_);
_operator = newOperator_;
}
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity >=0.6.12;
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/IERC20.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/math/SafeMath.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/Context.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/Address.sol";
// Due to compiling issues, _name, _symbol, and _decimals were removed
/**
* @dev Implementation of the {IERC20} interface.
*
* This implementation is agnostic to the way tokens are created. This means
* that a supply mechanism has to be added in a derived contract using {_mint}.
* For a generic mechanism see {ERC20Mintable}.
*
* TIP: For a detailed writeup see our guide
* https://forum.zeppelin.solutions/t/how-to-implement-erc20-supply-mechanisms/226[How
* to implement supply mechanisms].
*
* We have followed general OpenZeppelin guidelines: functions revert instead
* of returning `false` on failure. This behavior is nonetheless conventional
* and does not conflict with the expectations of ERC20 applications.
*
* Additionally, an {Approval} event is emitted on calls to {transferFrom}.
* This allows applications to reconstruct the allowance for all accounts just
* by listening to said events. Other implementations of the EIP may not emit
* these events, as it isn't required by the specification.
*
* Finally, the non-standard {decreaseAllowance} and {increaseAllowance}
* functions have been added to mitigate the well-known issues around setting
* allowances. See {IERC20-approve}.
*/
contract ERC20Custom is Context, IERC20 {
using SafeMath for uint256;
mapping (address => uint256) internal _balances;
mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256)) internal _allowances;
uint256 private _totalSupply;
/**
* @dev See {IERC20-totalSupply}.
*/
function totalSupply() public view override returns (uint256) {
return _totalSupply;
}
/**
* @dev See {IERC20-balanceOf}.
*/
function balanceOf(address account) public view override returns (uint256) {
return _balances[account];
}
/**
* @dev See {IERC20-transfer}.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
* - the caller must have a balance of at least `amount`.
*/
function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
_transfer(_msgSender(), recipient, amount);
return true;
}
/**
* @dev See {IERC20-allowance}.
*/
function allowance(address owner, address spender) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
return _allowances[owner][spender];
}
/**
* @dev See {IERC20-approve}.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `spender` cannot be the zero address.approve(address spender, uint256 amount)
*/
function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
_approve(_msgSender(), spender, amount);
return true;
}
/**
* @dev See {IERC20-transferFrom}.
*
* Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance. This is not
* required by the EIP. See the note at the beginning of {ERC20};
*
* Requirements:
* - `sender` and `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
* - `sender` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
* - the caller must have allowance for `sender`'s tokens of at least
* `amount`.
*/
function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
_transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
_approve(sender, _msgSender(), _allowances[sender][_msgSender()].sub(amount, "ERC20: transfer amount exceeds allowance"));
return true;
}
/**
* @dev Atomically increases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
*
* This is an alternative to {approve} that can be used as a mitigation for
* problems described in {IERC20-approve}.
*
* Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
*/
function increaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 addedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
_approve(_msgSender(), spender, _allowances[_msgSender()][spender].add(addedValue));
return true;
}
/**
* @dev Atomically decreases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
*
* This is an alternative to {approve} that can be used as a mitigation for
* problems described in {IERC20-approve}.
*
* Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
* - `spender` must have allowance for the caller of at least
* `subtractedValue`.
*/
function decreaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 subtractedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
_approve(_msgSender(), spender, _allowances[_msgSender()][spender].sub(subtractedValue, "ERC20: decreased allowance below zero"));
return true;
}
/**
* @dev Moves tokens `amount` from `sender` to `recipient`.
*
* This is internal function is equivalent to {transfer}, and can be used to
* e.g. implement automatic token fees, slashing mechanisms, etc.
*
* Emits a {Transfer} event.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `sender` cannot be the zero address.
* - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
* - `sender` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
*/
function _transfer(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
require(sender != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
require(recipient != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");
_beforeTokenTransfer(sender, recipient, amount);
_balances[sender] = _balances[sender].sub(amount, "ERC20: transfer amount exceeds balance");
_balances[recipient] = _balances[recipient].add(amount);
emit Transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
}
/** @dev Creates `amount` tokens and assigns them to `account`, increasing
* the total supply.
*
* Emits a {Transfer} event with `from` set to the zero address.
*
* Requirements
*
* - `to` cannot be the zero address.
*/
function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
require(account != address(0), "ERC20: mint to the zero address");
_beforeTokenTransfer(address(0), account, amount);
_totalSupply = _totalSupply.add(amount);
_balances[account] = _balances[account].add(amount);
emit Transfer(address(0), account, amount);
}
/**
* @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from the caller.
*
* See {ERC20-_burn}.
*/
function burn(uint256 amount) public virtual {
_burn(_msgSender(), amount);
}
/**
* @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from `account`, deducting from the caller's
* allowance.
*
* See {ERC20-_burn} and {ERC20-allowance}.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - the caller must have allowance for `accounts`'s tokens of at least
* `amount`.
*/
function burnFrom(address account, uint256 amount) public virtual {
uint256 decreasedAllowance = allowance(account, _msgSender()).sub(amount, "ERC20: burn amount exceeds allowance");
_approve(account, _msgSender(), decreasedAllowance);
_burn(account, amount);
}
/**
* @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from `account`, reducing the
* total supply.
*
* Emits a {Transfer} event with `to` set to the zero address.
*
* Requirements
*
* - `account` cannot be the zero address.
* - `account` must have at least `amount` tokens.
*/
function _burn(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
require(account != address(0), "ERC20: burn from the zero address");
_beforeTokenTransfer(account, address(0), amount);
_balances[account] = _balances[account].sub(amount, "ERC20: burn amount exceeds balance");
_totalSupply = _totalSupply.sub(amount);
emit Transfer(account, address(0), amount);
}
/**
* @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the `owner`s tokens.
*
* This is internal function is equivalent to `approve`, and can be used to
* e.g. set automatic allowances for certain subsystems, etc.
*
* Emits an {Approval} event.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `owner` cannot be the zero address.
* - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
*/
function _approve(address owner, address spender, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
require(owner != address(0), "ERC20: approve from the zero address");
require(spender != address(0), "ERC20: approve to the zero address");
_allowances[owner][spender] = amount;
emit Approval(owner, spender, amount);
}
/**
* @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from `account`.`amount` is then deducted
* from the caller's allowance.
*
* See {_burn} and {_approve}.
*/
function _burnFrom(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
_burn(account, amount);
_approve(account, _msgSender(), _allowances[account][_msgSender()].sub(amount, "ERC20: burn amount exceeds allowance"));
}
/**
* @dev Hook that is called before any transfer of tokens. This includes
* minting and burning.
*
* Calling conditions:
*
* - when `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `amount` of `from`'s tokens
* will be to transferred to `to`.
* - when `from` is zero, `amount` tokens will be minted for `to`.
* - when `to` is zero, `amount` of `from`'s tokens will be burned.
* - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
*
* To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:using-hooks.adoc[Using Hooks].
*/
function _beforeTokenTransfer(address from, address to, uint256 amount) internal virtual { }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity >=0.6.12;
/**
* @dev Wrappers over Solidity's arithmetic operations with added overflow
* checks.
*
* Arithmetic operations in Solidity wrap on overflow. This can easily result
* in bugs, because programmers usually assume that an overflow raises an
* error, which is the standard behavior in high level programming languages.
* `SafeMath` restores this intuition by reverting the transaction when an
* operation overflows.
*
* Using this library instead of the unchecked operations eliminates an entire
* class of bugs, so it's recommended to use it always.
*/
library SafeMath8 {
/**
* @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* overflow.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `+` operator.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - Addition cannot overflow.
*/
function add(uint8 a, uint8 b) internal pure returns (uint8) {
uint8 c = a + b;
require(c >= a, "SafeMath: addition overflow");
return c;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* overflow (when the result is negative).
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - Subtraction cannot overflow.
*/
function sub(uint8 a, uint8 b) internal pure returns (uint8) {
return sub(a, b, "SafeMath: subtraction overflow");
}
/**
* @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting with custom message on
* overflow (when the result is negative).
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - Subtraction cannot overflow.
*/
function sub(uint8 a, uint8 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint8) {
require(b <= a, errorMessage);
uint8 c = a - b;
return c;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* overflow.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `*` operator.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - Multiplication cannot overflow.
*/
function mul(uint8 a, uint8 b) internal pure returns (uint8) {
// Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring 'a' not being zero, but the
// benefit is lost if 'b' is also tested.
// See: https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/pull/522
if (a == 0) {
return 0;
}
uint8 c = a * b;
require(c / a == b, "SafeMath: multiplication overflow");
return c;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers. Reverts on
* division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator. Note: this function uses a
* `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity
* uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
*
* Requirements:
*
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function div(uint8 a, uint8 b) internal pure returns (uint8) {
return div(a, b, "SafeMath: division by zero");
}
/**
* @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers. Reverts with custom message on
* division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator. Note: this function uses a
* `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity
* uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
*
* Requirements:
*
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function div(uint8 a, uint8 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint8) {
require(b > 0, errorMessage);
uint8 c = a / b;
// assert(a == b * c + a % b); // There is no case in which this doesn't hold
return c;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
* Reverts when dividing by zero.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
* opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
* invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
*
* Requirements:
*
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function mod(uint8 a, uint8 b) internal pure returns (uint8) {
return mod(a, b, "SafeMath: modulo by zero");
}
/**
* @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
* Reverts with custom message when dividing by zero.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
* opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
* invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
*
* Requirements:
*
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function mod(uint8 a, uint8 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint8) {
require(b != 0, errorMessage);
return a % b;
}
}

pragma solidity >=0.6.12;
interface IMultiAssetTreasury {
function addCollateralPolicy(uint256 _aid, uint256 _price_band, uint256 _missing_decimals, uint256 _init_tcr, uint256 _init_ecr) external;
function setMissingDecimals(uint256 _missing_decimals, uint256 _assetId) external;
function hasPool(address _address) external view returns (bool);
function collateralFund() external view returns (address);
function globalCollateralBalance(uint256 _assetId) external view returns (uint256);
function collateralValue(uint256 _assetId) external view returns (uint256);
function buyback(
uint256 _assetId,
uint256 _collateral_amount,
uint256 _min_share_amount,
uint256 _min_asset_out,
address[] calldata path
) external;
function reCollateralize(uint256 _assetId, uint256 _share_amount, uint256 _min_collateral_amount, address[] calldata path) external;
function requestTransfer(
address token,
address receiver,
uint256 amount
) external;
function info(uint256 _assetId)
external
view
returns (
uint256,
uint256,
uint256,
uint256,
uint256,
uint256,
uint256,
uint256
);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity >=0.6.12;
pragma experimental ABIEncoderV2;
interface IDollar {
function poolBurnFrom(address _address, uint256 _amount) external;
function poolMint(address _address, uint256 m_amount) external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.6.0) (utils/math/SafeMath.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;
// CAUTION
// This version of SafeMath should only be used with Solidity 0.8 or later,
// because it relies on the compiler's built in overflow checks.
/**
* @dev Wrappers over Solidity's arithmetic operations.
*
* NOTE: `SafeMath` is generally not needed starting with Solidity 0.8, since the compiler
* now has built in overflow checking.
*/
library SafeMath {
/**
* @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
*
* _Available since v3.4._
*/
function tryAdd(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
unchecked {
uint256 c = a + b;
if (c < a) return (false, 0);
return (true, c);
}
}
/**
* @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
*
* _Available since v3.4._
*/
function trySub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
unchecked {
if (b > a) return (false, 0);
return (true, a - b);
}
}
/**
* @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
*
* _Available since v3.4._
*/
function tryMul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
unchecked {
// Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring 'a' not being zero, but the
// benefit is lost if 'b' is also tested.
// See: https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/pull/522
if (a == 0) return (true, 0);
uint256 c = a * b;
if (c / a != b) return (false, 0);
return (true, c);
}
}
/**
* @dev Returns the division of two unsigned integers, with a division by zero flag.
*
* _Available since v3.4._
*/
function tryDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
unchecked {
if (b == 0) return (false, 0);
return (true, a / b);
}
}
/**
* @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers, with a division by zero flag.
*
* _Available since v3.4._
*/
function tryMod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
unchecked {
if (b == 0) return (false, 0);
return (true, a % b);
}
}
/**
* @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* overflow.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `+` operator.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - Addition cannot overflow.
*/
function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
return a + b;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* overflow (when the result is negative).
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - Subtraction cannot overflow.
*/
function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
return a - b;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* overflow.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `*` operator.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - Multiplication cannot overflow.
*/
function mul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
return a * b;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers, reverting on
* division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function div(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
return a / b;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
* reverting when dividing by zero.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
* opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
* invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
*
* Requirements:
*
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
return a % b;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting with custom message on
* overflow (when the result is negative).
*
* CAUTION: This function is deprecated because it requires allocating memory for the error
* message unnecessarily. For custom revert reasons use {trySub}.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - Subtraction cannot overflow.
*/
function sub(
uint256 a,
uint256 b,
string memory errorMessage
) internal pure returns (uint256) {
unchecked {
require(b <= a, errorMessage);
return a - b;
}
}
/**
* @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers, reverting with custom message on
* division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator. Note: this function uses a
* `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity
* uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
*
* Requirements:
*
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function div(
uint256 a,
uint256 b,
string memory errorMessage
) internal pure returns (uint256) {
unchecked {
require(b > 0, errorMessage);
return a / b;
}
}
/**
* @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
* reverting with custom message when dividing by zero.
*
* CAUTION: This function is deprecated because it requires allocating memory for the error
* message unnecessarily. For custom revert reasons use {tryMod}.
*
* Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
* opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
* invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
*
* Requirements:
*
* - The divisor cannot be zero.
*/
function mod(
uint256 a,
uint256 b,
string memory errorMessage
) internal pure returns (uint256) {
unchecked {
require(b > 0, errorMessage);
return a % b;
}
}
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (utils/math/Math.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;
/**
* @dev Standard math utilities missing in the Solidity language.
*/
library Math {
enum Rounding {
Down, // Toward negative infinity
Up, // Toward infinity
Zero // Toward zero
}
/**
* @dev Returns the largest of two numbers.
*/
function max(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
return a >= b ? a : b;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the smallest of two numbers.
*/
function min(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
return a < b ? a : b;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the average of two numbers. The result is rounded towards
* zero.
*/
function average(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
// (a + b) / 2 can overflow.
return (a & b) + (a ^ b) / 2;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the ceiling of the division of two numbers.
*
* This differs from standard division with `/` in that it rounds up instead
* of rounding down.
*/
function ceilDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
// (a + b - 1) / b can overflow on addition, so we distribute.
return a == 0 ? 0 : (a - 1) / b + 1;
}
/**
* @notice Calculates floor(x * y / denominator) with full precision. Throws if result overflows a uint256 or denominator == 0
* @dev Original credit to Remco Bloemen under MIT license (https://xn--2-umb.com/21/muldiv)
* with further edits by Uniswap Labs also under MIT license.
*/
function mulDiv(
uint256 x,
uint256 y,
uint256 denominator
) internal pure returns (uint256 result) {
unchecked {
// 512-bit multiply [prod1 prod0] = x * y. Compute the product mod 2^256 and mod 2^256 - 1, then use
// use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to reconstruct the 512 bit result. The result is stored in two 256
// variables such that product = prod1 * 2^256 + prod0.
uint256 prod0; // Least significant 256 bits of the product
uint256 prod1; // Most significant 256 bits of the product
assembly {
let mm := mulmod(x, y, not(0))
prod0 := mul(x, y)
prod1 := sub(sub(mm, prod0), lt(mm, prod0))
}
// Handle non-overflow cases, 256 by 256 division.
if (prod1 == 0) {
return prod0 / denominator;
}
// Make sure the result is less than 2^256. Also prevents denominator == 0.
require(denominator > prod1);
///////////////////////////////////////////////
// 512 by 256 division.
///////////////////////////////////////////////
// Make division exact by subtracting the remainder from [prod1 prod0].
uint256 remainder;
assembly {
// Compute remainder using mulmod.
remainder := mulmod(x, y, denominator)
// Subtract 256 bit number from 512 bit number.
prod1 := sub(prod1, gt(remainder, prod0))
prod0 := sub(prod0, remainder)
}
// Factor powers of two out of denominator and compute largest power of two divisor of denominator. Always >= 1.
// See https://cs.stackexchange.com/q/138556/92363.
// Does not overflow because the denominator cannot be zero at this stage in the function.
uint256 twos = denominator & (~denominator + 1);
assembly {
// Divide denominator by twos.
denominator := div(denominator, twos)
// Divide [prod1 prod0] by twos.
prod0 := div(prod0, twos)
// Flip twos such that it is 2^256 / twos. If twos is zero, then it becomes one.
twos := add(div(sub(0, twos), twos), 1)
}
// Shift in bits from prod1 into prod0.
prod0 |= prod1 * twos;
// Invert denominator mod 2^256. Now that denominator is an odd number, it has an inverse modulo 2^256 such
// that denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^256. Compute the inverse by starting with a seed that is correct for
// four bits. That is, denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^4.
uint256 inverse = (3 * denominator) ^ 2;
// Use the Newton-Raphson iteration to improve the precision. Thanks to Hensel's lifting lemma, this also works
// in modular arithmetic, doubling the correct bits in each step.
inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^8
inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^16
inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^32
inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^64
inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^128
inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^256
// Because the division is now exact we can divide by multiplying with the modular inverse of denominator.
// This will give us the correct result modulo 2^256. Since the preconditions guarantee that the outcome is
// less than 2^256, this is the final result. We don't need to compute the high bits of the result and prod1
// is no longer required.
result = prod0 * inverse;
return result;
}
}
/**
* @notice Calculates x * y / denominator with full precision, following the selected rounding direction.
*/
function mulDiv(
uint256 x,
uint256 y,
uint256 denominator,
Rounding rounding
) internal pure returns (uint256) {
uint256 result = mulDiv(x, y, denominator);
if (rounding == Rounding.Up && mulmod(x, y, denominator) > 0) {
result += 1;
}
return result;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the square root of a number. It the number is not a perfect square, the value is rounded down.
*
* Inspired by Henry S. Warren, Jr.'s "Hacker's Delight" (Chapter 11).
*/
function sqrt(uint256 a) internal pure returns (uint256) {
if (a == 0) {
return 0;
}
// For our first guess, we get the biggest power of 2 which is smaller than the square root of the target.
// We know that the "msb" (most significant bit) of our target number `a` is a power of 2 such that we have
// `msb(a) <= a < 2*msb(a)`.
// We also know that `k`, the position of the most significant bit, is such that `msb(a) = 2**k`.
// This gives `2**k < a <= 2**(k+1)` → `2**(k/2) <= sqrt(a) < 2 ** (k/2+1)`.
// Using an algorithm similar to the msb conmputation, we are able to compute `result = 2**(k/2)` which is a
// good first aproximation of `sqrt(a)` with at least 1 correct bit.
uint256 result = 1;
uint256 x = a;
if (x >> 128 > 0) {
x >>= 128;
result <<= 64;
}
if (x >> 64 > 0) {
x >>= 64;
result <<= 32;
}
if (x >> 32 > 0) {
x >>= 32;
result <<= 16;
}
if (x >> 16 > 0) {
x >>= 16;
result <<= 8;
}
if (x >> 8 > 0) {
x >>= 8;
result <<= 4;
}
if (x >> 4 > 0) {
x >>= 4;
result <<= 2;
}
if (x >> 2 > 0) {
result <<= 1;
}
// At this point `result` is an estimation with one bit of precision. We know the true value is a uint128,
// since it is the square root of a uint256. Newton's method converges quadratically (precision doubles at
// every iteration). We thus need at most 7 iteration to turn our partial result with one bit of precision
// into the expected uint128 result.
unchecked {
result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
return min(result, a / result);
}
}
/**
* @notice Calculates sqrt(a), following the selected rounding direction.
*/
function sqrt(uint256 a, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
uint256 result = sqrt(a);
if (rounding == Rounding.Up && result * result < a) {
result += 1;
}
return result;
}
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/Context.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;
/**
* @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
* sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
* via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
* manner, since when dealing with meta-transactions the account sending and
* paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
* is concerned).
*
* This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
*/
abstract contract Context {
function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address) {
return msg.sender;
}
function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes calldata) {
return msg.data;
}
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (access/Ownable.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;
import "../utils/Context.sol";
/**
* @dev Contract module which provides a basic access control mechanism, where
* there is an account (an owner) that can be granted exclusive access to
* specific functions.
*
* By default, the owner account will be the one that deploys the contract. This
* can later be changed with {transferOwnership}.
*
* This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the modifier
* `onlyOwner`, which can be applied to your functions to restrict their use to
* the owner.
*/
abstract contract Ownable is Context {
address private _owner;
event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner);
/**
* @dev Initializes the contract setting the deployer as the initial owner.
*/
constructor() {
_transferOwnership(_msgSender());
}
/**
* @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
*/
modifier onlyOwner() {
_checkOwner();
_;
}
/**
* @dev Returns the address of the current owner.
*/
function owner() public view virtual returns (address) {
return _owner;
}
/**
* @dev Throws if the sender is not the owner.
*/
function _checkOwner() internal view virtual {
require(owner() == _msgSender(), "Ownable: caller is not the owner");
}
/**
* @dev Leaves the contract without owner. It will not be possible to call
* `onlyOwner` functions anymore. Can only be called by the current owner.
*
* NOTE: Renouncing ownership will leave the contract without an owner,
* thereby removing any functionality that is only available to the owner.
*/
function renounceOwnership() public virtual onlyOwner {
_transferOwnership(address(0));
}
/**
* @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
* Can only be called by the current owner.
*/
function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public virtual onlyOwner {
require(newOwner != address(0), "Ownable: new owner is the zero address");
_transferOwnership(newOwner);
}
/**
* @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
* Internal function without access restriction.
*/
function _transferOwnership(address newOwner) internal virtual {
address oldOwner = _owner;
_owner = newOwner;
emit OwnershipTransferred(oldOwner, newOwner);
}
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (utils/Address.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.1;
/**
* @dev Collection of functions related to the address type
*/
library Address {
/**
* @dev Returns true if `account` is a contract.
*
* [IMPORTANT]
* ====
* It is unsafe to assume that an address for which this function returns
* false is an externally-owned account (EOA) and not a contract.
*
* Among others, `isContract` will return false for the following
* types of addresses:
*
* - an externally-owned account
* - a contract in construction
* - an address where a contract will be created
* - an address where a contract lived, but was destroyed
* ====
*
* [IMPORTANT]
* ====
* You shouldn't rely on `isContract` to protect against flash loan attacks!
*
* Preventing calls from contracts is highly discouraged. It breaks composability, breaks support for smart wallets
* like Gnosis Safe, and does not provide security since it can be circumvented by calling from a contract
* constructor.
* ====
*/
function isContract(address account) internal view returns (bool) {
// This method relies on extcodesize/address.code.length, which returns 0
// for contracts in construction, since the code is only stored at the end
// of the constructor execution.
return account.code.length > 0;
}
/**
* @dev Replacement for Solidity's `transfer`: sends `amount` wei to
* `recipient`, forwarding all available gas and reverting on errors.
*
* https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1884[EIP1884] increases the gas cost
* of certain opcodes, possibly making contracts go over the 2300 gas limit
* imposed by `transfer`, making them unable to receive funds via
* `transfer`. {sendValue} removes this limitation.
*
* https://diligence.consensys.net/posts/2019/09/stop-using-soliditys-transfer-now/[Learn more].
*
* IMPORTANT: because control is transferred to `recipient`, care must be
* taken to not create reentrancy vulnerabilities. Consider using
* {ReentrancyGuard} or the
* https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.5.11/security-considerations.html#use-the-checks-effects-interactions-pattern[checks-effects-interactions pattern].
*/
function sendValue(address payable recipient, uint256 amount) internal {
require(address(this).balance >= amount, "Address: insufficient balance");
(bool success, ) = recipient.call{value: amount}("");
require(success, "Address: unable to send value, recipient may have reverted");
}
/**
* @dev Performs a Solidity function call using a low level `call`. A
* plain `call` is an unsafe replacement for a function call: use this
* function instead.
*
* If `target` reverts with a revert reason, it is bubbled up by this
* function (like regular Solidity function calls).
*
* Returns the raw returned data. To convert to the expected return value,
* use https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/units-and-global-variables.html?highlight=abi.decode#abi-encoding-and-decoding-functions[`abi.decode`].
*
* Requirements:
*
* - `target` must be a contract.
* - calling `target` with `data` must not revert.
*
* _Available since v3.1._
*/
function functionCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
return functionCall(target, data, "Address: low-level call failed");
}
/**
* @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`], but with
* `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
*
* _Available since v3.1._
*/
function functionCall(
address target,
bytes memory data,
string memory errorMessage
) internal returns (bytes memory) {
return functionCallWithValue(target, data, 0, errorMessage);
}
/**
* @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
* but also transferring `value` wei to `target`.
*
* Requirements:
*
* - the calling contract must have an ETH balance of at least `value`.
* - the called Solidity function must be `payable`.
*
* _Available since v3.1._
*/
function functionCallWithValue(
address target,
bytes memory data,
uint256 value
) internal returns (bytes memory) {
return functionCallWithValue(target, data, value, "Address: low-level call with value failed");
}
/**
* @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCallWithValue-address-bytes-uint256-}[`functionCallWithValue`], but
* with `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
*
* _Available since v3.1._
*/
function functionCallWithValue(
address target,
bytes memory data,
uint256 value,
string memory errorMessage
) internal returns (bytes memory) {
require(address(this).balance >= value, "Address: insufficient balance for call");
require(isContract(target), "Address: call to non-contract");
(bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.call{value: value}(data);
return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
}
/**
* @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
* but performing a static call.
*
* _Available since v3.3._
*/
function functionStaticCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
return functionStaticCall(target, data, "Address: low-level static call failed");
}
/**
* @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-string-}[`functionCall`],
* but performing a static call.
*
* _Available since v3.3._
*/
function functionStaticCall(
address target,
bytes memory data,
string memory errorMessage
) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
require(isContract(target), "Address: static call to non-contract");
(bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.staticcall(data);
return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
}
/**
* @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
* but performing a delegate call.
*
* _Available since v3.4._
*/
function functionDelegateCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
return functionDelegateCall(target, data, "Address: low-level delegate call failed");
}
/**
* @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-string-}[`functionCall`],
* but performing a delegate call.
*
* _Available since v3.4._
*/
function functionDelegateCall(
address target,
bytes memory data,
string memory errorMessage
) internal returns (bytes memory) {
require(isContract(target), "Address: delegate call to non-contract");
(bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.delegatecall(data);
return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
}
/**
* @dev Tool to verifies that a low level call was successful, and revert if it wasn't, either by bubbling the
* revert reason using the provided one.
*
* _Available since v4.3._
*/
function verifyCallResult(
bool success,
bytes memory returndata,
string memory errorMessage
) internal pure returns (bytes memory) {
if (success) {
return returndata;
} else {
// Look for revert reason and bubble it up if present
if (returndata.length > 0) {
// The easiest way to bubble the revert reason is using memory via assembly
/// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
assembly {
let returndata_size := mload(returndata)
revert(add(32, returndata), returndata_size)
}
} else {
revert(errorMessage);
}
}
}
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.6.0) (token/ERC20/IERC20.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;
/**
* @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP.
*/
interface IERC20 {
/**
* @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
* another (`to`).
*
* Note that `value` may be zero.
*/
event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);
/**
* @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
* a call to {approve}. `value` is the new allowance.
*/
event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
/**
* @dev Returns the amount of tokens in existence.
*/
function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);
/**
* @dev Returns the amount of tokens owned by `account`.
*/
function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);
/**
* @dev Moves `amount` tokens from the caller's account to `to`.
*
* Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
*
* Emits a {Transfer} event.
*/
function transfer(address to, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);
/**
* @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
* allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through {transferFrom}. This is
* zero by default.
*
* This value changes when {approve} or {transferFrom} are called.
*/
function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);
/**
* @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the caller's tokens.
*
* Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
*
* IMPORTANT: Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
* that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
* transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
* condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
* desired value afterwards:
* https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
*
* Emits an {Approval} event.
*/
function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);
/**
* @dev Moves `amount` tokens from `from` to `to` using the
* allowance mechanism. `amount` is then deducted from the caller's
* allowance.
*
* Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
*
* Emits a {Transfer} event.
*/
function transferFrom(
address from,
address to,
uint256 amount
) external returns (bool);
}