Contract 0x6a304dFdb9f808741244b6bfEe65ca7B3b3A6076

 
 
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Contract Source Code Verified (Exact Match)

Contract Name:
Ticket

Compiler Version
v0.8.6+commit.11564f7e

Optimization Enabled:
Yes with 2000 runs

Other Settings:
default evmVersion, GNU GPLv3 license

Contract Source Code (Solidity Standard Json-Input format)

File 1 of 21 : ERC20.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC20.sol";
import "./extensions/IERC20Metadata.sol";
import "../../utils/Context.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC20} interface.
 *
 * This implementation is agnostic to the way tokens are created. This means
 * that a supply mechanism has to be added in a derived contract using {_mint}.
 * For a generic mechanism see {ERC20PresetMinterPauser}.
 *
 * TIP: For a detailed writeup see our guide
 * https://forum.zeppelin.solutions/t/how-to-implement-erc20-supply-mechanisms/226[How
 * to implement supply mechanisms].
 *
 * We have followed general OpenZeppelin Contracts guidelines: functions revert
 * instead returning `false` on failure. This behavior is nonetheless
 * conventional and does not conflict with the expectations of ERC20
 * applications.
 *
 * Additionally, an {Approval} event is emitted on calls to {transferFrom}.
 * This allows applications to reconstruct the allowance for all accounts just
 * by listening to said events. Other implementations of the EIP may not emit
 * these events, as it isn't required by the specification.
 *
 * Finally, the non-standard {decreaseAllowance} and {increaseAllowance}
 * functions have been added to mitigate the well-known issues around setting
 * allowances. See {IERC20-approve}.
 */
contract ERC20 is Context, IERC20, IERC20Metadata {
    mapping(address => uint256) private _balances;

    mapping(address => mapping(address => uint256)) private _allowances;

    uint256 private _totalSupply;

    string private _name;
    string private _symbol;

    /**
     * @dev Sets the values for {name} and {symbol}.
     *
     * The default value of {decimals} is 18. To select a different value for
     * {decimals} you should overload it.
     *
     * All two of these values are immutable: they can only be set once during
     * construction.
     */
    constructor(string memory name_, string memory symbol_) {
        _name = name_;
        _symbol = symbol_;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the name of the token.
     */
    function name() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the symbol of the token, usually a shorter version of the
     * name.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of decimals used to get its user representation.
     * For example, if `decimals` equals `2`, a balance of `505` tokens should
     * be displayed to a user as `5.05` (`505 / 10 ** 2`).
     *
     * Tokens usually opt for a value of 18, imitating the relationship between
     * Ether and Wei. This is the value {ERC20} uses, unless this function is
     * overridden;
     *
     * NOTE: This information is only used for _display_ purposes: it in
     * no way affects any of the arithmetic of the contract, including
     * {IERC20-balanceOf} and {IERC20-transfer}.
     */
    function decimals() public view virtual override returns (uint8) {
        return 18;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-totalSupply}.
     */
    function totalSupply() public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _totalSupply;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-balanceOf}.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _balances[account];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-transfer}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
     * - the caller must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     */
    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
        _transfer(_msgSender(), recipient, amount);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-allowance}.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _allowances[owner][spender];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
        _approve(_msgSender(), spender, amount);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-transferFrom}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance. This is not
     * required by the EIP. See the note at the beginning of {ERC20}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `sender` and `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `sender` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     * - the caller must have allowance for ``sender``'s tokens of at least
     * `amount`.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address sender,
        address recipient,
        uint256 amount
    ) public virtual override returns (bool) {
        _transfer(sender, recipient, amount);

        uint256 currentAllowance = _allowances[sender][_msgSender()];
        require(currentAllowance >= amount, "ERC20: transfer amount exceeds allowance");
        unchecked {
            _approve(sender, _msgSender(), currentAllowance - amount);
        }

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Atomically increases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
     *
     * This is an alternative to {approve} that can be used as a mitigation for
     * problems described in {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function increaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 addedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
        _approve(_msgSender(), spender, _allowances[_msgSender()][spender] + addedValue);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Atomically decreases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
     *
     * This is an alternative to {approve} that can be used as a mitigation for
     * problems described in {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `spender` must have allowance for the caller of at least
     * `subtractedValue`.
     */
    function decreaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 subtractedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
        uint256 currentAllowance = _allowances[_msgSender()][spender];
        require(currentAllowance >= subtractedValue, "ERC20: decreased allowance below zero");
        unchecked {
            _approve(_msgSender(), spender, currentAllowance - subtractedValue);
        }

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` of tokens from `sender` to `recipient`.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to {transfer}, and can be used to
     * e.g. implement automatic token fees, slashing mechanisms, etc.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `sender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `sender` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     */
    function _transfer(
        address sender,
        address recipient,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {
        require(sender != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
        require(recipient != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(sender, recipient, amount);

        uint256 senderBalance = _balances[sender];
        require(senderBalance >= amount, "ERC20: transfer amount exceeds balance");
        unchecked {
            _balances[sender] = senderBalance - amount;
        }
        _balances[recipient] += amount;

        emit Transfer(sender, recipient, amount);

        _afterTokenTransfer(sender, recipient, amount);
    }

    /** @dev Creates `amount` tokens and assigns them to `account`, increasing
     * the total supply.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event with `from` set to the zero address.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC20: mint to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(address(0), account, amount);

        _totalSupply += amount;
        _balances[account] += amount;
        emit Transfer(address(0), account, amount);

        _afterTokenTransfer(address(0), account, amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from `account`, reducing the
     * total supply.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event with `to` set to the zero address.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `account` must have at least `amount` tokens.
     */
    function _burn(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC20: burn from the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(account, address(0), amount);

        uint256 accountBalance = _balances[account];
        require(accountBalance >= amount, "ERC20: burn amount exceeds balance");
        unchecked {
            _balances[account] = accountBalance - amount;
        }
        _totalSupply -= amount;

        emit Transfer(account, address(0), amount);

        _afterTokenTransfer(account, address(0), amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the `owner` s tokens.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to `approve`, and can be used to
     * e.g. set automatic allowances for certain subsystems, etc.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `owner` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function _approve(
        address owner,
        address spender,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC20: approve from the zero address");
        require(spender != address(0), "ERC20: approve to the zero address");

        _allowances[owner][spender] = amount;
        emit Approval(owner, spender, amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before any transfer of tokens. This includes
     * minting and burning.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - when `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens
     * will be transferred to `to`.
     * - when `from` is zero, `amount` tokens will be minted for `to`.
     * - when `to` is zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens will be burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {}

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called after any transfer of tokens. This includes
     * minting and burning.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - when `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens
     * has been transferred to `to`.
     * - when `from` is zero, `amount` tokens have been minted for `to`.
     * - when `to` is zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens have been burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _afterTokenTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {}
}

File 2 of 21 : IERC20.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP.
 */
interface IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens in existence.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens owned by `account`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from the caller's account to `recipient`.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
     * allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through {transferFrom}. This is
     * zero by default.
     *
     * This value changes when {approve} or {transferFrom} are called.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the caller's tokens.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
     * that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
     * transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
     * condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
     * desired value afterwards:
     * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from `sender` to `recipient` using the
     * allowance mechanism. `amount` is then deducted from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address sender,
        address recipient,
        uint256 amount
    ) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
     * another (`to`).
     *
     * Note that `value` may be zero.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
     * a call to {approve}. `value` is the new allowance.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
}

File 3 of 21 : IERC20Metadata.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../IERC20.sol";

/**
 * @dev Interface for the optional metadata functions from the ERC20 standard.
 *
 * _Available since v4.1._
 */
interface IERC20Metadata is IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the name of the token.
     */
    function name() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the symbol of the token.
     */
    function symbol() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the decimals places of the token.
     */
    function decimals() external view returns (uint8);
}

File 4 of 21 : draft-ERC20Permit.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./draft-IERC20Permit.sol";
import "../ERC20.sol";
import "../../../utils/cryptography/draft-EIP712.sol";
import "../../../utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol";
import "../../../utils/Counters.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the ERC20 Permit extension allowing approvals to be made via signatures, as defined in
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2612[EIP-2612].
 *
 * Adds the {permit} method, which can be used to change an account's ERC20 allowance (see {IERC20-allowance}) by
 * presenting a message signed by the account. By not relying on `{IERC20-approve}`, the token holder account doesn't
 * need to send a transaction, and thus is not required to hold Ether at all.
 *
 * _Available since v3.4._
 */
abstract contract ERC20Permit is ERC20, IERC20Permit, EIP712 {
    using Counters for Counters.Counter;

    mapping(address => Counters.Counter) private _nonces;

    // solhint-disable-next-line var-name-mixedcase
    bytes32 private immutable _PERMIT_TYPEHASH =
        keccak256("Permit(address owner,address spender,uint256 value,uint256 nonce,uint256 deadline)");

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the {EIP712} domain separator using the `name` parameter, and setting `version` to `"1"`.
     *
     * It's a good idea to use the same `name` that is defined as the ERC20 token name.
     */
    constructor(string memory name) EIP712(name, "1") {}

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20Permit-permit}.
     */
    function permit(
        address owner,
        address spender,
        uint256 value,
        uint256 deadline,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) public virtual override {
        require(block.timestamp <= deadline, "ERC20Permit: expired deadline");

        bytes32 structHash = keccak256(abi.encode(_PERMIT_TYPEHASH, owner, spender, value, _useNonce(owner), deadline));

        bytes32 hash = _hashTypedDataV4(structHash);

        address signer = ECDSA.recover(hash, v, r, s);
        require(signer == owner, "ERC20Permit: invalid signature");

        _approve(owner, spender, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20Permit-nonces}.
     */
    function nonces(address owner) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _nonces[owner].current();
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20Permit-DOMAIN_SEPARATOR}.
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function DOMAIN_SEPARATOR() external view override returns (bytes32) {
        return _domainSeparatorV4();
    }

    /**
     * @dev "Consume a nonce": return the current value and increment.
     *
     * _Available since v4.1._
     */
    function _useNonce(address owner) internal virtual returns (uint256 current) {
        Counters.Counter storage nonce = _nonces[owner];
        current = nonce.current();
        nonce.increment();
    }
}

File 5 of 21 : draft-IERC20Permit.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 Permit extension allowing approvals to be made via signatures, as defined in
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2612[EIP-2612].
 *
 * Adds the {permit} method, which can be used to change an account's ERC20 allowance (see {IERC20-allowance}) by
 * presenting a message signed by the account. By not relying on {IERC20-approve}, the token holder account doesn't
 * need to send a transaction, and thus is not required to hold Ether at all.
 */
interface IERC20Permit {
    /**
     * @dev Sets `value` as the allowance of `spender` over ``owner``'s tokens,
     * given ``owner``'s signed approval.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: The same issues {IERC20-approve} has related to transaction
     * ordering also apply here.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `deadline` must be a timestamp in the future.
     * - `v`, `r` and `s` must be a valid `secp256k1` signature from `owner`
     * over the EIP712-formatted function arguments.
     * - the signature must use ``owner``'s current nonce (see {nonces}).
     *
     * For more information on the signature format, see the
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2612#specification[relevant EIP
     * section].
     */
    function permit(
        address owner,
        address spender,
        uint256 value,
        uint256 deadline,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns the current nonce for `owner`. This value must be
     * included whenever a signature is generated for {permit}.
     *
     * Every successful call to {permit} increases ``owner``'s nonce by one. This
     * prevents a signature from being used multiple times.
     */
    function nonces(address owner) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the domain separator used in the encoding of the signature for {permit}, as defined by {EIP712}.
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function DOMAIN_SEPARATOR() external view returns (bytes32);
}

File 6 of 21 : SafeERC20.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../IERC20.sol";
import "../../../utils/Address.sol";

/**
 * @title SafeERC20
 * @dev Wrappers around ERC20 operations that throw on failure (when the token
 * contract returns false). Tokens that return no value (and instead revert or
 * throw on failure) are also supported, non-reverting calls are assumed to be
 * successful.
 * To use this library you can add a `using SafeERC20 for IERC20;` statement to your contract,
 * which allows you to call the safe operations as `token.safeTransfer(...)`, etc.
 */
library SafeERC20 {
    using Address for address;

    function safeTransfer(
        IERC20 token,
        address to,
        uint256 value
    ) internal {
        _callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.transfer.selector, to, value));
    }

    function safeTransferFrom(
        IERC20 token,
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 value
    ) internal {
        _callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.transferFrom.selector, from, to, value));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Deprecated. This function has issues similar to the ones found in
     * {IERC20-approve}, and its usage is discouraged.
     *
     * Whenever possible, use {safeIncreaseAllowance} and
     * {safeDecreaseAllowance} instead.
     */
    function safeApprove(
        IERC20 token,
        address spender,
        uint256 value
    ) internal {
        // safeApprove should only be called when setting an initial allowance,
        // or when resetting it to zero. To increase and decrease it, use
        // 'safeIncreaseAllowance' and 'safeDecreaseAllowance'
        require(
            (value == 0) || (token.allowance(address(this), spender) == 0),
            "SafeERC20: approve from non-zero to non-zero allowance"
        );
        _callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.approve.selector, spender, value));
    }

    function safeIncreaseAllowance(
        IERC20 token,
        address spender,
        uint256 value
    ) internal {
        uint256 newAllowance = token.allowance(address(this), spender) + value;
        _callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.approve.selector, spender, newAllowance));
    }

    function safeDecreaseAllowance(
        IERC20 token,
        address spender,
        uint256 value
    ) internal {
        unchecked {
            uint256 oldAllowance = token.allowance(address(this), spender);
            require(oldAllowance >= value, "SafeERC20: decreased allowance below zero");
            uint256 newAllowance = oldAllowance - value;
            _callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.approve.selector, spender, newAllowance));
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Imitates a Solidity high-level call (i.e. a regular function call to a contract), relaxing the requirement
     * on the return value: the return value is optional (but if data is returned, it must not be false).
     * @param token The token targeted by the call.
     * @param data The call data (encoded using abi.encode or one of its variants).
     */
    function _callOptionalReturn(IERC20 token, bytes memory data) private {
        // We need to perform a low level call here, to bypass Solidity's return data size checking mechanism, since
        // we're implementing it ourselves. We use {Address.functionCall} to perform this call, which verifies that
        // the target address contains contract code and also asserts for success in the low-level call.

        bytes memory returndata = address(token).functionCall(data, "SafeERC20: low-level call failed");
        if (returndata.length > 0) {
            // Return data is optional
            require(abi.decode(returndata, (bool)), "SafeERC20: ERC20 operation did not succeed");
        }
    }
}

File 7 of 21 : Address.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Collection of functions related to the address type
 */
library Address {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if `account` is a contract.
     *
     * [IMPORTANT]
     * ====
     * It is unsafe to assume that an address for which this function returns
     * false is an externally-owned account (EOA) and not a contract.
     *
     * Among others, `isContract` will return false for the following
     * types of addresses:
     *
     *  - an externally-owned account
     *  - a contract in construction
     *  - an address where a contract will be created
     *  - an address where a contract lived, but was destroyed
     * ====
     */
    function isContract(address account) internal view returns (bool) {
        // This method relies on extcodesize, which returns 0 for contracts in
        // construction, since the code is only stored at the end of the
        // constructor execution.

        uint256 size;
        assembly {
            size := extcodesize(account)
        }
        return size > 0;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Replacement for Solidity's `transfer`: sends `amount` wei to
     * `recipient`, forwarding all available gas and reverting on errors.
     *
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1884[EIP1884] increases the gas cost
     * of certain opcodes, possibly making contracts go over the 2300 gas limit
     * imposed by `transfer`, making them unable to receive funds via
     * `transfer`. {sendValue} removes this limitation.
     *
     * https://diligence.consensys.net/posts/2019/09/stop-using-soliditys-transfer-now/[Learn more].
     *
     * IMPORTANT: because control is transferred to `recipient`, care must be
     * taken to not create reentrancy vulnerabilities. Consider using
     * {ReentrancyGuard} or the
     * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.5.11/security-considerations.html#use-the-checks-effects-interactions-pattern[checks-effects-interactions pattern].
     */
    function sendValue(address payable recipient, uint256 amount) internal {
        require(address(this).balance >= amount, "Address: insufficient balance");

        (bool success, ) = recipient.call{value: amount}("");
        require(success, "Address: unable to send value, recipient may have reverted");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Performs a Solidity function call using a low level `call`. A
     * plain `call` is an unsafe replacement for a function call: use this
     * function instead.
     *
     * If `target` reverts with a revert reason, it is bubbled up by this
     * function (like regular Solidity function calls).
     *
     * Returns the raw returned data. To convert to the expected return value,
     * use https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/units-and-global-variables.html?highlight=abi.decode#abi-encoding-and-decoding-functions[`abi.decode`].
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `target` must be a contract.
     * - calling `target` with `data` must not revert.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCall(target, data, "Address: low-level call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`], but with
     * `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, 0, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but also transferring `value` wei to `target`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the calling contract must have an ETH balance of at least `value`.
     * - the called Solidity function must be `payable`.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        uint256 value
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, value, "Address: low-level call with value failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCallWithValue-address-bytes-uint256-}[`functionCallWithValue`], but
     * with `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        uint256 value,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        require(address(this).balance >= value, "Address: insufficient balance for call");
        require(isContract(target), "Address: call to non-contract");

        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.call{value: value}(data);
        return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a static call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.3._
     */
    function functionStaticCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionStaticCall(target, data, "Address: low-level static call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-string-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a static call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.3._
     */
    function functionStaticCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
        require(isContract(target), "Address: static call to non-contract");

        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.staticcall(data);
        return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a delegate call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function functionDelegateCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionDelegateCall(target, data, "Address: low-level delegate call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-string-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a delegate call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function functionDelegateCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        require(isContract(target), "Address: delegate call to non-contract");

        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.delegatecall(data);
        return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Tool to verifies that a low level call was successful, and revert if it wasn't, either by bubbling the
     * revert reason using the provided one.
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function verifyCallResult(
        bool success,
        bytes memory returndata,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal pure returns (bytes memory) {
        if (success) {
            return returndata;
        } else {
            // Look for revert reason and bubble it up if present
            if (returndata.length > 0) {
                // The easiest way to bubble the revert reason is using memory via assembly

                assembly {
                    let returndata_size := mload(returndata)
                    revert(add(32, returndata), returndata_size)
                }
            } else {
                revert(errorMessage);
            }
        }
    }
}

File 8 of 21 : Context.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
 * sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
 * via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
 * manner, since when dealing with meta-transactions the account sending and
 * paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
 * is concerned).
 *
 * This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
 */
abstract contract Context {
    function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes calldata) {
        return msg.data;
    }
}

File 9 of 21 : Counters.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @title Counters
 * @author Matt Condon (@shrugs)
 * @dev Provides counters that can only be incremented, decremented or reset. This can be used e.g. to track the number
 * of elements in a mapping, issuing ERC721 ids, or counting request ids.
 *
 * Include with `using Counters for Counters.Counter;`
 */
library Counters {
    struct Counter {
        // This variable should never be directly accessed by users of the library: interactions must be restricted to
        // the library's function. As of Solidity v0.5.2, this cannot be enforced, though there is a proposal to add
        // this feature: see https://github.com/ethereum/solidity/issues/4637
        uint256 _value; // default: 0
    }

    function current(Counter storage counter) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return counter._value;
    }

    function increment(Counter storage counter) internal {
        unchecked {
            counter._value += 1;
        }
    }

    function decrement(Counter storage counter) internal {
        uint256 value = counter._value;
        require(value > 0, "Counter: decrement overflow");
        unchecked {
            counter._value = value - 1;
        }
    }

    function reset(Counter storage counter) internal {
        counter._value = 0;
    }
}

File 10 of 21 : ECDSA.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) operations.
 *
 * These functions can be used to verify that a message was signed by the holder
 * of the private keys of a given address.
 */
library ECDSA {
    enum RecoverError {
        NoError,
        InvalidSignature,
        InvalidSignatureLength,
        InvalidSignatureS,
        InvalidSignatureV
    }

    function _throwError(RecoverError error) private pure {
        if (error == RecoverError.NoError) {
            return; // no error: do nothing
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignature) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature length");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature 's' value");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureV) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature 'v' value");
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature` or error string. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM opcode allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     *
     * Documentation for signature generation:
     * - with https://web3js.readthedocs.io/en/v1.3.4/web3-eth-accounts.html#sign[Web3.js]
     * - with https://docs.ethers.io/v5/api/signer/#Signer-signMessage[ethers]
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        // Check the signature length
        // - case 65: r,s,v signature (standard)
        // - case 64: r,vs signature (cf https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098) _Available since v4.1._
        if (signature.length == 65) {
            bytes32 r;
            bytes32 s;
            uint8 v;
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                s := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
                v := byte(0, mload(add(signature, 0x60)))
            }
            return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        } else if (signature.length == 64) {
            bytes32 r;
            bytes32 vs;
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                vs := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
            }
            return tryRecover(hash, r, vs);
        } else {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature`. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM opcode allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     */
    function recover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, signature);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `r` and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     *
     * See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098[EIP-2098 short signatures]
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(
        bytes32 hash,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 vs
    ) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        bytes32 s;
        uint8 v;
        assembly {
            s := and(vs, 0x7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff)
            v := add(shr(255, vs), 27)
        }
        return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `r and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     *
     * _Available since v4.2._
     */
    function recover(
        bytes32 hash,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 vs
    ) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, r, vs);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(
        bytes32 hash,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        // EIP-2 still allows signature malleability for ecrecover(). Remove this possibility and make the signature
        // unique. Appendix F in the Ethereum Yellow paper (https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf), defines
        // the valid range for s in (301): 0 < s < secp256k1n ÷ 2 + 1, and for v in (302): v ∈ {27, 28}. Most
        // signatures from current libraries generate a unique signature with an s-value in the lower half order.
        //
        // If your library generates malleable signatures, such as s-values in the upper range, calculate a new s-value
        // with 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEBAAEDCE6AF48A03BBFD25E8CD0364141 - s1 and flip v from 27 to 28 or
        // vice versa. If your library also generates signatures with 0/1 for v instead 27/28, add 27 to v to accept
        // these malleable signatures as well.
        if (uint256(s) > 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF5D576E7357A4501DDFE92F46681B20A0) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS);
        }
        if (v != 27 && v != 28) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureV);
        }

        // If the signature is valid (and not malleable), return the signer address
        address signer = ecrecover(hash, v, r, s);
        if (signer == address(0)) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignature);
        }

        return (signer, RecoverError.NoError);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     */
    function recover(
        bytes32 hash,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Message, created from a `hash`. This
     * produces hash corresponding to the one signed with the
     * https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-191.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes32 hash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        // 32 is the length in bytes of hash,
        // enforced by the type signature above
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n32", hash));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Typed Data, created from a
     * `domainSeparator` and a `structHash`. This produces hash corresponding
     * to the one signed with the
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[`eth_signTypedData`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-712.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toTypedDataHash(bytes32 domainSeparator, bytes32 structHash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19\x01", domainSeparator, structHash));
    }
}

File 11 of 21 : draft-EIP712.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./ECDSA.sol";

/**
 * @dev https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[EIP 712] is a standard for hashing and signing of typed structured data.
 *
 * The encoding specified in the EIP is very generic, and such a generic implementation in Solidity is not feasible,
 * thus this contract does not implement the encoding itself. Protocols need to implement the type-specific encoding
 * they need in their contracts using a combination of `abi.encode` and `keccak256`.
 *
 * This contract implements the EIP 712 domain separator ({_domainSeparatorV4}) that is used as part of the encoding
 * scheme, and the final step of the encoding to obtain the message digest that is then signed via ECDSA
 * ({_hashTypedDataV4}).
 *
 * The implementation of the domain separator was designed to be as efficient as possible while still properly updating
 * the chain id to protect against replay attacks on an eventual fork of the chain.
 *
 * NOTE: This contract implements the version of the encoding known as "v4", as implemented by the JSON RPC method
 * https://docs.metamask.io/guide/signing-data.html[`eth_signTypedDataV4` in MetaMask].
 *
 * _Available since v3.4._
 */
abstract contract EIP712 {
    /* solhint-disable var-name-mixedcase */
    // Cache the domain separator as an immutable value, but also store the chain id that it corresponds to, in order to
    // invalidate the cached domain separator if the chain id changes.
    bytes32 private immutable _CACHED_DOMAIN_SEPARATOR;
    uint256 private immutable _CACHED_CHAIN_ID;

    bytes32 private immutable _HASHED_NAME;
    bytes32 private immutable _HASHED_VERSION;
    bytes32 private immutable _TYPE_HASH;

    /* solhint-enable var-name-mixedcase */

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the domain separator and parameter caches.
     *
     * The meaning of `name` and `version` is specified in
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712#definition-of-domainseparator[EIP 712]:
     *
     * - `name`: the user readable name of the signing domain, i.e. the name of the DApp or the protocol.
     * - `version`: the current major version of the signing domain.
     *
     * NOTE: These parameters cannot be changed except through a xref:learn::upgrading-smart-contracts.adoc[smart
     * contract upgrade].
     */
    constructor(string memory name, string memory version) {
        bytes32 hashedName = keccak256(bytes(name));
        bytes32 hashedVersion = keccak256(bytes(version));
        bytes32 typeHash = keccak256(
            "EIP712Domain(string name,string version,uint256 chainId,address verifyingContract)"
        );
        _HASHED_NAME = hashedName;
        _HASHED_VERSION = hashedVersion;
        _CACHED_CHAIN_ID = block.chainid;
        _CACHED_DOMAIN_SEPARATOR = _buildDomainSeparator(typeHash, hashedName, hashedVersion);
        _TYPE_HASH = typeHash;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the domain separator for the current chain.
     */
    function _domainSeparatorV4() internal view returns (bytes32) {
        if (block.chainid == _CACHED_CHAIN_ID) {
            return _CACHED_DOMAIN_SEPARATOR;
        } else {
            return _buildDomainSeparator(_TYPE_HASH, _HASHED_NAME, _HASHED_VERSION);
        }
    }

    function _buildDomainSeparator(
        bytes32 typeHash,
        bytes32 nameHash,
        bytes32 versionHash
    ) private view returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encode(typeHash, nameHash, versionHash, block.chainid, address(this)));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Given an already https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712#definition-of-hashstruct[hashed struct], this
     * function returns the hash of the fully encoded EIP712 message for this domain.
     *
     * This hash can be used together with {ECDSA-recover} to obtain the signer of a message. For example:
     *
     * ```solidity
     * bytes32 digest = _hashTypedDataV4(keccak256(abi.encode(
     *     keccak256("Mail(address to,string contents)"),
     *     mailTo,
     *     keccak256(bytes(mailContents))
     * )));
     * address signer = ECDSA.recover(digest, signature);
     * ```
     */
    function _hashTypedDataV4(bytes32 structHash) internal view virtual returns (bytes32) {
        return ECDSA.toTypedDataHash(_domainSeparatorV4(), structHash);
    }
}

File 12 of 21 : SafeCast.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Wrappers over Solidity's uintXX/intXX casting operators with added overflow
 * checks.
 *
 * Downcasting from uint256/int256 in Solidity does not revert on overflow. This can
 * easily result in undesired exploitation or bugs, since developers usually
 * assume that overflows raise errors. `SafeCast` restores this intuition by
 * reverting the transaction when such an operation overflows.
 *
 * Using this library instead of the unchecked operations eliminates an entire
 * class of bugs, so it's recommended to use it always.
 *
 * Can be combined with {SafeMath} and {SignedSafeMath} to extend it to smaller types, by performing
 * all math on `uint256` and `int256` and then downcasting.
 */
library SafeCast {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint224 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint224).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint224` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 224 bits
     */
    function toUint224(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint224) {
        require(value <= type(uint224).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 224 bits");
        return uint224(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint128 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint128).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint128` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 128 bits
     */
    function toUint128(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint128) {
        require(value <= type(uint128).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 128 bits");
        return uint128(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint96 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint96).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint96` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 96 bits
     */
    function toUint96(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint96) {
        require(value <= type(uint96).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 96 bits");
        return uint96(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint64 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint64).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint64` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 64 bits
     */
    function toUint64(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint64) {
        require(value <= type(uint64).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 64 bits");
        return uint64(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint32 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint32).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint32` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 32 bits
     */
    function toUint32(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint32) {
        require(value <= type(uint32).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 32 bits");
        return uint32(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint16 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint16).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint16` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 16 bits
     */
    function toUint16(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint16) {
        require(value <= type(uint16).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 16 bits");
        return uint16(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint8 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint8).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint8` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 8 bits.
     */
    function toUint8(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint8) {
        require(value <= type(uint8).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 8 bits");
        return uint8(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a signed int256 into an unsigned uint256.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must be greater than or equal to 0.
     */
    function toUint256(int256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(value >= 0, "SafeCast: value must be positive");
        return uint256(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int128 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int128 or
     * greater than largest int128).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int128` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 128 bits
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function toInt128(int256 value) internal pure returns (int128) {
        require(value >= type(int128).min && value <= type(int128).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 128 bits");
        return int128(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int64 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int64 or
     * greater than largest int64).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int64` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 64 bits
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function toInt64(int256 value) internal pure returns (int64) {
        require(value >= type(int64).min && value <= type(int64).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 64 bits");
        return int64(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int32 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int32 or
     * greater than largest int32).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int32` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 32 bits
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function toInt32(int256 value) internal pure returns (int32) {
        require(value >= type(int32).min && value <= type(int32).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 32 bits");
        return int32(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int16 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int16 or
     * greater than largest int16).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int16` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 16 bits
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function toInt16(int256 value) internal pure returns (int16) {
        require(value >= type(int16).min && value <= type(int16).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 16 bits");
        return int16(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int8 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int8 or
     * greater than largest int8).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int8` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 8 bits.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function toInt8(int256 value) internal pure returns (int8) {
        require(value >= type(int8).min && value <= type(int8).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 8 bits");
        return int8(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts an unsigned uint256 into a signed int256.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must be less than or equal to maxInt256.
     */
    function toInt256(uint256 value) internal pure returns (int256) {
        // Note: Unsafe cast below is okay because `type(int256).max` is guaranteed to be positive
        require(value <= uint256(type(int256).max), "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in an int256");
        return int256(value);
    }
}

File 13 of 21 : ControlledToken.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity 0.8.6;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/draft-ERC20Permit.sol";

import "./interfaces/IControlledToken.sol";

/**
 * @title  PoolTogether V4 Controlled ERC20 Token
 * @author PoolTogether Inc Team
 * @notice  ERC20 Tokens with a controller for minting & burning
 */
contract ControlledToken is ERC20Permit, IControlledToken {
    /* ============ Global Variables ============ */

    /// @notice Interface to the contract responsible for controlling mint/burn
    address public override immutable controller;

    /// @notice ERC20 controlled token decimals.
    uint8 private immutable _decimals;

    /* ============ Events ============ */

    /// @dev Emitted when contract is deployed
    event Deployed(string name, string symbol, uint8 decimals, address indexed controller);

    /* ============ Modifiers ============ */

    /// @dev Function modifier to ensure that the caller is the controller contract
    modifier onlyController() {
        require(msg.sender == address(controller), "ControlledToken/only-controller");
        _;
    }

    /* ============ Constructor ============ */

    /// @notice Deploy the Controlled Token with Token Details and the Controller
    /// @param _name The name of the Token
    /// @param _symbol The symbol for the Token
    /// @param decimals_ The number of decimals for the Token
    /// @param _controller Address of the Controller contract for minting & burning
    constructor(
        string memory _name,
        string memory _symbol,
        uint8 decimals_,
        address _controller
    ) ERC20Permit("PoolTogether ControlledToken") ERC20(_name, _symbol) {
        require(address(_controller) != address(0), "ControlledToken/controller-not-zero-address");
        controller = _controller;

        require(decimals_ > 0, "ControlledToken/decimals-gt-zero");
        _decimals = decimals_;

        emit Deployed(_name, _symbol, decimals_, _controller);
    }

    /* ============ External Functions ============ */

    /// @notice Allows the controller to mint tokens for a user account
    /// @dev May be overridden to provide more granular control over minting
    /// @param _user Address of the receiver of the minted tokens
    /// @param _amount Amount of tokens to mint
    function controllerMint(address _user, uint256 _amount)
        external
        virtual
        override
        onlyController
    {
        _mint(_user, _amount);
    }

    /// @notice Allows the controller to burn tokens from a user account
    /// @dev May be overridden to provide more granular control over burning
    /// @param _user Address of the holder account to burn tokens from
    /// @param _amount Amount of tokens to burn
    function controllerBurn(address _user, uint256 _amount)
        external
        virtual
        override
        onlyController
    {
        _burn(_user, _amount);
    }

    /// @notice Allows an operator via the controller to burn tokens on behalf of a user account
    /// @dev May be overridden to provide more granular control over operator-burning
    /// @param _operator Address of the operator performing the burn action via the controller contract
    /// @param _user Address of the holder account to burn tokens from
    /// @param _amount Amount of tokens to burn
    function controllerBurnFrom(
        address _operator,
        address _user,
        uint256 _amount
    ) external virtual override onlyController {
        if (_operator != _user) {
            _approve(_user, _operator, allowance(_user, _operator) - _amount);
        }

        _burn(_user, _amount);
    }

    /// @notice Returns the ERC20 controlled token decimals.
    /// @dev This value should be equal to the decimals of the token used to deposit into the pool.
    /// @return uint8 decimals.
    function decimals() public view virtual override returns (uint8) {
        return _decimals;
    }
}

File 14 of 21 : Ticket.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity 0.8.6;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/IERC20.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/utils/SafeERC20.sol";

import "./libraries/ExtendedSafeCastLib.sol";
import "./libraries/TwabLib.sol";
import "./interfaces/ITicket.sol";
import "./ControlledToken.sol";

/**
  * @title  PoolTogether V4 Ticket
  * @author PoolTogether Inc Team
  * @notice The Ticket extends the standard ERC20 and ControlledToken interfaces with time-weighted average balance functionality.
            The average balance held by a user between two timestamps can be calculated, as well as the historic balance.  The
            historic total supply is available as well as the average total supply between two timestamps.

            A user may "delegate" their balance; increasing another user's historic balance while retaining their tokens.
*/
contract Ticket is ControlledToken, ITicket {
    using SafeERC20 for IERC20;
    using ExtendedSafeCastLib for uint256;

    // solhint-disable-next-line var-name-mixedcase
    bytes32 private immutable _DELEGATE_TYPEHASH =
        keccak256("Delegate(address user,address delegate,uint256 nonce,uint256 deadline)");

    /// @notice Record of token holders TWABs for each account.
    mapping(address => TwabLib.Account) internal userTwabs;

    /// @notice Record of tickets total supply and ring buff parameters used for observation.
    TwabLib.Account internal totalSupplyTwab;

    /// @notice Mapping of delegates.  Each address can delegate their ticket power to another.
    mapping(address => address) internal delegates;

    /* ============ Constructor ============ */

    /**
     * @notice Constructs Ticket with passed parameters.
     * @param _name ERC20 ticket token name.
     * @param _symbol ERC20 ticket token symbol.
     * @param decimals_ ERC20 ticket token decimals.
     * @param _controller ERC20 ticket controller address (ie: Prize Pool address).
     */
    constructor(
        string memory _name,
        string memory _symbol,
        uint8 decimals_,
        address _controller
    ) ControlledToken(_name, _symbol, decimals_, _controller) {}

    /* ============ External Functions ============ */

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function getAccountDetails(address _user)
        external
        view
        override
        returns (TwabLib.AccountDetails memory)
    {
        return userTwabs[_user].details;
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function getTwab(address _user, uint16 _index)
        external
        view
        override
        returns (ObservationLib.Observation memory)
    {
        return userTwabs[_user].twabs[_index];
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function getBalanceAt(address _user, uint64 _target) external view override returns (uint256) {
        TwabLib.Account storage account = userTwabs[_user];

        return
            TwabLib.getBalanceAt(
                account.twabs,
                account.details,
                uint32(_target),
                uint32(block.timestamp)
            );
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function getAverageBalancesBetween(
        address _user,
        uint64[] calldata _startTimes,
        uint64[] calldata _endTimes
    ) external view override returns (uint256[] memory) {
        return _getAverageBalancesBetween(userTwabs[_user], _startTimes, _endTimes);
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function getAverageTotalSuppliesBetween(
        uint64[] calldata _startTimes,
        uint64[] calldata _endTimes
    ) external view override returns (uint256[] memory) {
        return _getAverageBalancesBetween(totalSupplyTwab, _startTimes, _endTimes);
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function getAverageBalanceBetween(
        address _user,
        uint64 _startTime,
        uint64 _endTime
    ) external view override returns (uint256) {
        TwabLib.Account storage account = userTwabs[_user];

        return
            TwabLib.getAverageBalanceBetween(
                account.twabs,
                account.details,
                uint32(_startTime),
                uint32(_endTime),
                uint32(block.timestamp)
            );
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function getBalancesAt(address _user, uint64[] calldata _targets)
        external
        view
        override
        returns (uint256[] memory)
    {
        uint256 length = _targets.length;
        uint256[] memory _balances = new uint256[](length);

        TwabLib.Account storage twabContext = userTwabs[_user];
        TwabLib.AccountDetails memory details = twabContext.details;

        for (uint256 i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            _balances[i] = TwabLib.getBalanceAt(
                twabContext.twabs,
                details,
                uint32(_targets[i]),
                uint32(block.timestamp)
            );
        }

        return _balances;
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function getTotalSupplyAt(uint64 _target) external view override returns (uint256) {
        return
            TwabLib.getBalanceAt(
                totalSupplyTwab.twabs,
                totalSupplyTwab.details,
                uint32(_target),
                uint32(block.timestamp)
            );
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function getTotalSuppliesAt(uint64[] calldata _targets)
        external
        view
        override
        returns (uint256[] memory)
    {
        uint256 length = _targets.length;
        uint256[] memory totalSupplies = new uint256[](length);

        TwabLib.AccountDetails memory details = totalSupplyTwab.details;

        for (uint256 i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            totalSupplies[i] = TwabLib.getBalanceAt(
                totalSupplyTwab.twabs,
                details,
                uint32(_targets[i]),
                uint32(block.timestamp)
            );
        }

        return totalSupplies;
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function delegateOf(address _user) external view override returns (address) {
        return delegates[_user];
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function controllerDelegateFor(address _user, address _to) external override onlyController {
        _delegate(_user, _to);
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function delegateWithSignature(
        address _user,
        address _newDelegate,
        uint256 _deadline,
        uint8 _v,
        bytes32 _r,
        bytes32 _s
    ) external virtual override {
        require(block.timestamp <= _deadline, "Ticket/delegate-expired-deadline");

        bytes32 structHash = keccak256(abi.encode(_DELEGATE_TYPEHASH, _user, _newDelegate, _useNonce(_user), _deadline));

        bytes32 hash = _hashTypedDataV4(structHash);

        address signer = ECDSA.recover(hash, _v, _r, _s);
        require(signer == _user, "Ticket/delegate-invalid-signature");

        _delegate(_user, _newDelegate);
    }

    /// @inheritdoc ITicket
    function delegate(address _to) external virtual override {
        _delegate(msg.sender, _to);
    }

    /// @notice Delegates a users chance to another
    /// @param _user The user whose balance should be delegated
    /// @param _to The delegate
    function _delegate(address _user, address _to) internal {
        uint256 balance = balanceOf(_user);
        address currentDelegate = delegates[_user];

        if (currentDelegate == _to) {
            return;
        }

        delegates[_user] = _to;

        _transferTwab(currentDelegate, _to, balance);

        emit Delegated(_user, _to);
    }

    /* ============ Internal Functions ============ */

    /**
     * @notice Retrieves the average balances held by a user for a given time frame.
     * @param _account The user whose balance is checked.
     * @param _startTimes The start time of the time frame.
     * @param _endTimes The end time of the time frame.
     * @return The average balance that the user held during the time frame.
     */
    function _getAverageBalancesBetween(
        TwabLib.Account storage _account,
        uint64[] calldata _startTimes,
        uint64[] calldata _endTimes
    ) internal view returns (uint256[] memory) {
        uint256 startTimesLength = _startTimes.length;
        require(startTimesLength == _endTimes.length, "Ticket/start-end-times-length-match");

        TwabLib.AccountDetails memory accountDetails = _account.details;

        uint256[] memory averageBalances = new uint256[](startTimesLength);
        uint32 currentTimestamp = uint32(block.timestamp);

        for (uint256 i = 0; i < startTimesLength; i++) {
            averageBalances[i] = TwabLib.getAverageBalanceBetween(
                _account.twabs,
                accountDetails,
                uint32(_startTimes[i]),
                uint32(_endTimes[i]),
                currentTimestamp
            );
        }

        return averageBalances;
    }

    // @inheritdoc ERC20
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(address _from, address _to, uint256 _amount) internal override {
        if (_from == _to) {
            return;
        }

        address _fromDelegate;
        if (_from != address(0)) {
            _fromDelegate = delegates[_from];
        }

        address _toDelegate;
        if (_to != address(0)) {
            _toDelegate = delegates[_to];
        }

        _transferTwab(_fromDelegate, _toDelegate, _amount);
    }

    /// @notice Transfers the given TWAB balance from one user to another
    /// @param _from The user to transfer the balance from.  May be zero in the event of a mint.
    /// @param _to The user to transfer the balance to.  May be zero in the event of a burn.
    /// @param _amount The balance that is being transferred.
    function _transferTwab(address _from, address _to, uint256 _amount) internal {
        // If we are transferring tokens from a delegated account to an undelegated account
        if (_from != address(0)) {
            _decreaseUserTwab(_from, _amount);

            if (_to == address(0)) {
                _decreaseTotalSupplyTwab(_amount);
            }
        }

        // If we are transferring tokens from an undelegated account to a delegated account
        if (_to != address(0)) {
            _increaseUserTwab(_to, _amount);

            if (_from == address(0)) {
                _increaseTotalSupplyTwab(_amount);
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Increase `_to` TWAB balance.
     * @param _to Address of the delegate.
     * @param _amount Amount of tokens to be added to `_to` TWAB balance.
     */
    function _increaseUserTwab(
        address _to,
        uint256 _amount
    ) internal {
        if (_amount == 0) {
            return;
        }

        TwabLib.Account storage _account = userTwabs[_to];

        (
            TwabLib.AccountDetails memory accountDetails,
            ObservationLib.Observation memory twab,
            bool isNew
        ) = TwabLib.increaseBalance(_account, _amount.toUint208(), uint32(block.timestamp));

        _account.details = accountDetails;

        if (isNew) {
            emit NewUserTwab(_to, twab);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Decrease `_to` TWAB balance.
     * @param _to Address of the delegate.
     * @param _amount Amount of tokens to be added to `_to` TWAB balance.
     */
    function _decreaseUserTwab(
        address _to,
        uint256 _amount
    ) internal {
        if (_amount == 0) {
            return;
        }

        TwabLib.Account storage _account = userTwabs[_to];

        (
            TwabLib.AccountDetails memory accountDetails,
            ObservationLib.Observation memory twab,
            bool isNew
        ) = TwabLib.decreaseBalance(
                _account,
                _amount.toUint208(),
                "Ticket/twab-burn-lt-balance",
                uint32(block.timestamp)
            );

        _account.details = accountDetails;

        if (isNew) {
            emit NewUserTwab(_to, twab);
        }
    }

    /// @notice Decreases the total supply twab.  Should be called anytime a balance moves from delegated to undelegated
    /// @param _amount The amount to decrease the total by
    function _decreaseTotalSupplyTwab(uint256 _amount) internal {
        if (_amount == 0) {
            return;
        }

        (
            TwabLib.AccountDetails memory accountDetails,
            ObservationLib.Observation memory tsTwab,
            bool tsIsNew
        ) = TwabLib.decreaseBalance(
                totalSupplyTwab,
                _amount.toUint208(),
                "Ticket/burn-amount-exceeds-total-supply-twab",
                uint32(block.timestamp)
            );

        totalSupplyTwab.details = accountDetails;

        if (tsIsNew) {
            emit NewTotalSupplyTwab(tsTwab);
        }
    }

    /// @notice Increases the total supply twab.  Should be called anytime a balance moves from undelegated to delegated
    /// @param _amount The amount to increase the total by
    function _increaseTotalSupplyTwab(uint256 _amount) internal {
        if (_amount == 0) {
            return;
        }

        (
            TwabLib.AccountDetails memory accountDetails,
            ObservationLib.Observation memory _totalSupply,
            bool tsIsNew
        ) = TwabLib.increaseBalance(totalSupplyTwab, _amount.toUint208(), uint32(block.timestamp));

        totalSupplyTwab.details = accountDetails;

        if (tsIsNew) {
            emit NewTotalSupplyTwab(_totalSupply);
        }
    }
}

File 15 of 21 : IControlledToken.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity 0.8.6;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/IERC20.sol";

/** @title IControlledToken
  * @author PoolTogether Inc Team
  * @notice ERC20 Tokens with a controller for minting & burning.
*/
interface IControlledToken is IERC20 {

    /** 
        @notice Interface to the contract responsible for controlling mint/burn
    */
    function controller() external view returns (address);

    /** 
      * @notice Allows the controller to mint tokens for a user account
      * @dev May be overridden to provide more granular control over minting
      * @param user Address of the receiver of the minted tokens
      * @param amount Amount of tokens to mint
    */
    function controllerMint(address user, uint256 amount) external;

    /** 
      * @notice Allows the controller to burn tokens from a user account
      * @dev May be overridden to provide more granular control over burning
      * @param user Address of the holder account to burn tokens from
      * @param amount Amount of tokens to burn
    */
    function controllerBurn(address user, uint256 amount) external;

    /** 
      * @notice Allows an operator via the controller to burn tokens on behalf of a user account
      * @dev May be overridden to provide more granular control over operator-burning
      * @param operator Address of the operator performing the burn action via the controller contract
      * @param user Address of the holder account to burn tokens from
      * @param amount Amount of tokens to burn
    */
    function controllerBurnFrom(
        address operator,
        address user,
        uint256 amount
    ) external;
}

File 16 of 21 : ITicket.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity 0.8.6;

import "../libraries/TwabLib.sol";
import "./IControlledToken.sol";

interface ITicket is IControlledToken {
    /**
     * @notice A struct containing details for an Account.
     * @param balance The current balance for an Account.
     * @param nextTwabIndex The next available index to store a new twab.
     * @param cardinality The number of recorded twabs (plus one!).
     */
    struct AccountDetails {
        uint224 balance;
        uint16 nextTwabIndex;
        uint16 cardinality;
    }

    /**
     * @notice Combines account details with their twab history.
     * @param details The account details.
     * @param twabs The history of twabs for this account.
     */
    struct Account {
        AccountDetails details;
        ObservationLib.Observation[65535] twabs;
    }

    /**
     * @notice Emitted when TWAB balance has been delegated to another user.
     * @param delegator Address of the delegator.
     * @param delegate Address of the delegate.
     */
    event Delegated(address indexed delegator, address indexed delegate);

    /**
     * @notice Emitted when ticket is initialized.
     * @param name Ticket name (eg: PoolTogether Dai Ticket (Compound)).
     * @param symbol Ticket symbol (eg: PcDAI).
     * @param decimals Ticket decimals.
     * @param controller Token controller address.
     */
    event TicketInitialized(string name, string symbol, uint8 decimals, address indexed controller);

    /**
     * @notice Emitted when a new TWAB has been recorded.
     * @param delegate The recipient of the ticket power (may be the same as the user).
     * @param newTwab Updated TWAB of a ticket holder after a successful TWAB recording.
     */
    event NewUserTwab(
        address indexed delegate,
        ObservationLib.Observation newTwab
    );

    /**
     * @notice Emitted when a new total supply TWAB has been recorded.
     * @param newTotalSupplyTwab Updated TWAB of tickets total supply after a successful total supply TWAB recording.
     */
    event NewTotalSupplyTwab(ObservationLib.Observation newTotalSupplyTwab);

    /**
     * @notice Retrieves the address of the delegate to whom `user` has delegated their tickets.
     * @dev Address of the delegate will be the zero address if `user` has not delegated their tickets.
     * @param user Address of the delegator.
     * @return Address of the delegate.
     */
    function delegateOf(address user) external view returns (address);

    /**
    * @notice Delegate time-weighted average balances to an alternative address.
    * @dev    Transfers (including mints) trigger the storage of a TWAB in delegate(s) account, instead of the
              targetted sender and/or recipient address(s).
    * @dev    To reset the delegate, pass the zero address (0x000.000) as `to` parameter.
    * @dev Current delegate address should be different from the new delegate address `to`.
    * @param  to Recipient of delegated TWAB.
    */
    function delegate(address to) external;

    /**
     * @notice Allows the controller to delegate on a users behalf.
     * @param user The user for whom to delegate
     * @param delegate The new delegate
     */
    function controllerDelegateFor(address user, address delegate) external;

    /**
     * @notice Allows a user to delegate via signature
     * @param user The user who is delegating
     * @param delegate The new delegate
     * @param deadline The timestamp by which this must be submitted
     * @param v The v portion of the ECDSA sig
     * @param r The r portion of the ECDSA sig
     * @param s The s portion of the ECDSA sig
     */
    function delegateWithSignature(
        address user,
        address delegate,
        uint256 deadline,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) external;

    /**
     * @notice Gets a users twab context.  This is a struct with their balance, next twab index, and cardinality.
     * @param user The user for whom to fetch the TWAB context.
     * @return The TWAB context, which includes { balance, nextTwabIndex, cardinality }
     */
    function getAccountDetails(address user) external view returns (TwabLib.AccountDetails memory);

    /**
     * @notice Gets the TWAB at a specific index for a user.
     * @param user The user for whom to fetch the TWAB.
     * @param index The index of the TWAB to fetch.
     * @return The TWAB, which includes the twab amount and the timestamp.
     */
    function getTwab(address user, uint16 index)
        external
        view
        returns (ObservationLib.Observation memory);

    /**
     * @notice Retrieves `user` TWAB balance.
     * @param user Address of the user whose TWAB is being fetched.
     * @param timestamp Timestamp at which we want to retrieve the TWAB balance.
     * @return The TWAB balance at the given timestamp.
     */
    function getBalanceAt(address user, uint64 timestamp) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @notice Retrieves `user` TWAB balances.
     * @param user Address of the user whose TWABs are being fetched.
     * @param timestamps Timestamps range at which we want to retrieve the TWAB balances.
     * @return `user` TWAB balances.
     */
    function getBalancesAt(address user, uint64[] calldata timestamps)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256[] memory);

    /**
     * @notice Retrieves the average balance held by a user for a given time frame.
     * @param user The user whose balance is checked.
     * @param startTime The start time of the time frame.
     * @param endTime The end time of the time frame.
     * @return The average balance that the user held during the time frame.
     */
    function getAverageBalanceBetween(
        address user,
        uint64 startTime,
        uint64 endTime
    ) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @notice Retrieves the average balances held by a user for a given time frame.
     * @param user The user whose balance is checked.
     * @param startTimes The start time of the time frame.
     * @param endTimes The end time of the time frame.
     * @return The average balance that the user held during the time frame.
     */
    function getAverageBalancesBetween(
        address user,
        uint64[] calldata startTimes,
        uint64[] calldata endTimes
    ) external view returns (uint256[] memory);

    /**
     * @notice Retrieves the total supply TWAB balance at the given timestamp.
     * @param timestamp Timestamp at which we want to retrieve the total supply TWAB balance.
     * @return The total supply TWAB balance at the given timestamp.
     */
    function getTotalSupplyAt(uint64 timestamp) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @notice Retrieves the total supply TWAB balance between the given timestamps range.
     * @param timestamps Timestamps range at which we want to retrieve the total supply TWAB balance.
     * @return Total supply TWAB balances.
     */
    function getTotalSuppliesAt(uint64[] calldata timestamps)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256[] memory);

    /**
     * @notice Retrieves the average total supply balance for a set of given time frames.
     * @param startTimes Array of start times.
     * @param endTimes Array of end times.
     * @return The average total supplies held during the time frame.
     */
    function getAverageTotalSuppliesBetween(
        uint64[] calldata startTimes,
        uint64[] calldata endTimes
    ) external view returns (uint256[] memory);
}

File 17 of 21 : ExtendedSafeCastLib.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity 0.8.6;

/**
 * @dev Wrappers over Solidity's uintXX/intXX casting operators with added overflow
 * checks.
 *
 * Downcasting from uint256/int256 in Solidity does not revert on overflow. This can
 * easily result in undesired exploitation or bugs, since developers usually
 * assume that overflows raise errors. `SafeCast` restores this intuition by
 * reverting the transaction when such an operation overflows.
 *
 * Using this library instead of the unchecked operations eliminates an entire
 * class of bugs, so it's recommended to use it always.
 *
 * Can be combined with {SafeMath} and {SignedSafeMath} to extend it to smaller types, by performing
 * all math on `uint256` and `int256` and then downcasting.
 */
library ExtendedSafeCastLib {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint208 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint208).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint208` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 208 bits
     */
    function toUint208(uint256 _value) internal pure returns (uint208) {
        require(_value <= type(uint208).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 208 bits");
        return uint208(_value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint224 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint224).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint224` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 224 bits
     */
    function toUint224(uint256 _value) internal pure returns (uint224) {
        require(_value <= type(uint224).max, "SafeCast: value doesn't fit in 224 bits");
        return uint224(_value);
    }
}

File 18 of 21 : ObservationLib.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity 0.8.6;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/math/SafeCast.sol";

import "./OverflowSafeComparatorLib.sol";
import "./RingBufferLib.sol";

/**
* @title Observation Library
* @notice This library allows one to store an array of timestamped values and efficiently binary search them.
* @dev Largely pulled from Uniswap V3 Oracle.sol: https://github.com/Uniswap/v3-core/blob/c05a0e2c8c08c460fb4d05cfdda30b3ad8deeaac/contracts/libraries/Oracle.sol
* @author PoolTogether Inc.
*/
library ObservationLib {
    using OverflowSafeComparatorLib for uint32;
    using SafeCast for uint256;

    /// @notice The maximum number of observations
    uint24 public constant MAX_CARDINALITY = 16777215; // 2**24

    /**
    * @notice Observation, which includes an amount and timestamp.
    * @param amount `amount` at `timestamp`.
    * @param timestamp Recorded `timestamp`.
    */
    struct Observation {
        uint224 amount;
        uint32 timestamp;
    }

    /**
    * @notice Fetches Observations `beforeOrAt` and `atOrAfter` a `_target`, eg: where [`beforeOrAt`, `atOrAfter`] is satisfied.
    * The result may be the same Observation, or adjacent Observations.
    * @dev The answer must be contained in the array used when the target is located within the stored Observation.
    * boundaries: older than the most recent Observation and younger, or the same age as, the oldest Observation.
    * @dev  If `_newestObservationIndex` is less than `_oldestObservationIndex`, it means that we've wrapped around the circular buffer.
    *       So the most recent observation will be at `_oldestObservationIndex + _cardinality - 1`, at the beginning of the circular buffer.
    * @param _observations List of Observations to search through.
    * @param _newestObservationIndex Index of the newest Observation. Right side of the circular buffer.
    * @param _oldestObservationIndex Index of the oldest Observation. Left side of the circular buffer.
    * @param _target Timestamp at which we are searching the Observation.
    * @param _cardinality Cardinality of the circular buffer we are searching through.
    * @param _time Timestamp at which we perform the binary search.
    * @return beforeOrAt Observation recorded before, or at, the target.
    * @return atOrAfter Observation recorded at, or after, the target.
    */
    function binarySearch(
        Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] storage _observations,
        uint24 _newestObservationIndex,
        uint24 _oldestObservationIndex,
        uint32 _target,
        uint24 _cardinality,
        uint32 _time
    ) internal view returns (Observation memory beforeOrAt, Observation memory atOrAfter) {
        uint256 leftSide = _oldestObservationIndex;
        uint256 rightSide = _newestObservationIndex < leftSide
            ? leftSide + _cardinality - 1
            : _newestObservationIndex;
        uint256 currentIndex;

        while (true) {
            // We start our search in the middle of the `leftSide` and `rightSide`.
            // After each iteration, we narrow down the search to the left or the right side while still starting our search in the middle.
            currentIndex = (leftSide + rightSide) / 2;

            beforeOrAt = _observations[uint24(RingBufferLib.wrap(currentIndex, _cardinality))];
            uint32 beforeOrAtTimestamp = beforeOrAt.timestamp;

            // We've landed on an uninitialized timestamp, keep searching higher (more recently).
            if (beforeOrAtTimestamp == 0) {
                leftSide = currentIndex + 1;
                continue;
            }

            atOrAfter = _observations[uint24(RingBufferLib.nextIndex(currentIndex, _cardinality))];

            bool targetAtOrAfter = beforeOrAtTimestamp.lte(_target, _time);

            // Check if we've found the corresponding Observation.
            if (targetAtOrAfter && _target.lte(atOrAfter.timestamp, _time)) {
                break;
            }

            // If `beforeOrAtTimestamp` is greater than `_target`, then we keep searching lower. To the left of the current index.
            if (!targetAtOrAfter) {
                rightSide = currentIndex - 1;
            } else {
                // Otherwise, we keep searching higher. To the left of the current index.
                leftSide = currentIndex + 1;
            }
        }
    }
}

File 19 of 21 : OverflowSafeComparatorLib.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity 0.8.6;

/// @title OverflowSafeComparatorLib library to share comparator functions between contracts
/// @dev Code taken from Uniswap V3 Oracle.sol: https://github.com/Uniswap/v3-core/blob/3e88af408132fc957e3e406f65a0ce2b1ca06c3d/contracts/libraries/Oracle.sol
/// @author PoolTogether Inc.
library OverflowSafeComparatorLib {
    /// @notice 32-bit timestamps comparator.
    /// @dev safe for 0 or 1 overflows, `_a` and `_b` must be chronologically before or equal to time.
    /// @param _a A comparison timestamp from which to determine the relative position of `_timestamp`.
    /// @param _b Timestamp to compare against `_a`.
    /// @param _timestamp A timestamp truncated to 32 bits.
    /// @return bool Whether `_a` is chronologically < `_b`.
    function lt(
        uint32 _a,
        uint32 _b,
        uint32 _timestamp
    ) internal pure returns (bool) {
        // No need to adjust if there hasn't been an overflow
        if (_a <= _timestamp && _b <= _timestamp) return _a < _b;

        uint256 aAdjusted = _a > _timestamp ? _a : _a + 2**32;
        uint256 bAdjusted = _b > _timestamp ? _b : _b + 2**32;

        return aAdjusted < bAdjusted;
    }

    /// @notice 32-bit timestamps comparator.
    /// @dev safe for 0 or 1 overflows, `_a` and `_b` must be chronologically before or equal to time.
    /// @param _a A comparison timestamp from which to determine the relative position of `_timestamp`.
    /// @param _b Timestamp to compare against `_a`.
    /// @param _timestamp A timestamp truncated to 32 bits.
    /// @return bool Whether `_a` is chronologically <= `_b`.
    function lte(
        uint32 _a,
        uint32 _b,
        uint32 _timestamp
    ) internal pure returns (bool) {

        // No need to adjust if there hasn't been an overflow
        if (_a <= _timestamp && _b <= _timestamp) return _a <= _b;

        uint256 aAdjusted = _a > _timestamp ? _a : _a + 2**32;
        uint256 bAdjusted = _b > _timestamp ? _b : _b + 2**32;

        return aAdjusted <= bAdjusted;
    }

    /// @notice 32-bit timestamp subtractor
    /// @dev safe for 0 or 1 overflows, where `_a` and `_b` must be chronologically before or equal to time
    /// @param _a The subtraction left operand
    /// @param _b The subtraction right operand
    /// @param _timestamp The current time.  Expected to be chronologically after both.
    /// @return The difference between a and b, adjusted for overflow
    function checkedSub(
        uint32 _a,
        uint32 _b,
        uint32 _timestamp
    ) internal pure returns (uint32) {
        // No need to adjust if there hasn't been an overflow

        if (_a <= _timestamp && _b <= _timestamp) return _a - _b;

        uint256 aAdjusted = _a > _timestamp ? _a : _a + 2**32;
        uint256 bAdjusted = _b > _timestamp ? _b : _b + 2**32;

        return uint32(aAdjusted - bAdjusted);
    }
}

File 20 of 21 : RingBufferLib.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity 0.8.6;

library RingBufferLib {
    /**
    * @notice Returns wrapped TWAB index.
    * @dev  In order to navigate the TWAB circular buffer, we need to use the modulo operator.
    * @dev  For example, if `_index` is equal to 32 and the TWAB circular buffer is of `_cardinality` 32,
    *       it will return 0 and will point to the first element of the array.
    * @param _index Index used to navigate through the TWAB circular buffer.
    * @param _cardinality TWAB buffer cardinality.
    * @return TWAB index.
    */
    function wrap(uint256 _index, uint256 _cardinality) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return _index % _cardinality;
    }

    /**
    * @notice Computes the negative offset from the given index, wrapped by the cardinality.
    * @dev  We add `_cardinality` to `_index` to be able to offset even if `_amount` is superior to `_cardinality`.
    * @param _index The index from which to offset
    * @param _amount The number of indices to offset.  This is subtracted from the given index.
    * @param _cardinality The number of elements in the ring buffer
    * @return Offsetted index.
     */
    function offset(
        uint256 _index,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint256 _cardinality
    ) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return wrap(_index + _cardinality - _amount, _cardinality);
    }

    /// @notice Returns the index of the last recorded TWAB
    /// @param _nextIndex The next available twab index.  This will be recorded to next.
    /// @param _cardinality The cardinality of the TWAB history.
    /// @return The index of the last recorded TWAB
    function newestIndex(uint256 _nextIndex, uint256 _cardinality)
        internal
        pure
        returns (uint256)
    {
        if (_cardinality == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        return wrap(_nextIndex + _cardinality - 1, _cardinality);
    }

    /// @notice Computes the ring buffer index that follows the given one, wrapped by cardinality
    /// @param _index The index to increment
    /// @param _cardinality The number of elements in the Ring Buffer
    /// @return The next index relative to the given index.  Will wrap around to 0 if the next index == cardinality
    function nextIndex(uint256 _index, uint256 _cardinality)
        internal
        pure
        returns (uint256)
    {
        return wrap(_index + 1, _cardinality);
    }
}

File 21 of 21 : TwabLib.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity 0.8.6;

import "./ExtendedSafeCastLib.sol";
import "./OverflowSafeComparatorLib.sol";
import "./RingBufferLib.sol";
import "./ObservationLib.sol";

/**
  * @title  PoolTogether V4 TwabLib (Library)
  * @author PoolTogether Inc Team
  * @dev    Time-Weighted Average Balance Library for ERC20 tokens.
  * @notice This TwabLib adds on-chain historical lookups to a user(s) time-weighted average balance.
            Each user is mapped to an Account struct containing the TWAB history (ring bufffer) and
            ring buffer parameters. Every token.transfer() creates a new TWAB checkpoint. The new TWAB
            checkpoint is stored in the circular ring buffer, as either a new checkpoint or rewriting
            a previous checkpoint with new parameters. The TwabLib (using existing blocktimes 1block/15sec)
            guarantees minimum 7.4 years of search history.
 */
library TwabLib {
    using OverflowSafeComparatorLib for uint32;
    using ExtendedSafeCastLib for uint256;

    /**
      * @notice Sets max ring buffer length in the Account.twabs Observation list.
                As users transfer/mint/burn tickets new Observation checkpoints are
                recorded. The current max cardinality guarantees a six month minimum,
                of historical accurate lookups with current estimates of 1 new block
                every 15 seconds - the of course contain a transfer to trigger an
                observation write to storage.
      * @dev    The user Account.AccountDetails.cardinality parameter can NOT exceed
                the max cardinality variable. Preventing "corrupted" ring buffer lookup
                pointers and new observation checkpoints.

                The MAX_CARDINALITY in fact guarantees at least 7.4 years of records:
                If 14 = block time in seconds
                (2**24) * 14 = 234881024 seconds of history
                234881024 / (365 * 24 * 60 * 60) ~= 7.44 years
    */
    uint24 public constant MAX_CARDINALITY = 16777215; // 2**24

    /** @notice Struct ring buffer parameters for single user Account
      * @param balance       Current balance for an Account
      * @param nextTwabIndex Next uninitialized or updatable ring buffer checkpoint storage slot
      * @param cardinality   Current total "initialized" ring buffer checkpoints for single user AccountDetails.
                             Used to set initial boundary conditions for an efficient binary search.
    */
    struct AccountDetails {
        uint208 balance;
        uint24 nextTwabIndex;
        uint24 cardinality;
    }

    /// @notice Combines account details with their twab history
    /// @param details The account details
    /// @param twabs The history of twabs for this account
    struct Account {
        AccountDetails details;
        ObservationLib.Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] twabs;
    }

    /// @notice Increases an account's balance and records a new twab.
    /// @param _account The account whose balance will be increased
    /// @param _amount The amount to increase the balance by
    /// @param _currentTime The current time
    /// @return accountDetails The new AccountDetails
    /// @return twab The user's latest TWAB
    /// @return isNew Whether the TWAB is new
    function increaseBalance(
        Account storage _account,
        uint208 _amount,
        uint32 _currentTime
    )
        internal
        returns (
            AccountDetails memory accountDetails,
            ObservationLib.Observation memory twab,
            bool isNew
        )
    {
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails = _account.details;
        (accountDetails, twab, isNew) = _nextTwab(_account.twabs, _accountDetails, _currentTime);
        accountDetails.balance = _accountDetails.balance + _amount;
    }

    /** @notice Calculates the next TWAB checkpoint for an account with a decreasing balance.
     * @dev    With Account struct and amount decreasing calculates the next TWAB observable checkpoint.
     * @param _account        Account whose balance will be decreased
     * @param _amount         Amount to decrease the balance by
     * @param _revertMessage  Revert message for insufficient balance
     * @return accountDetails Updated Account.details struct
     * @return twab           TWAB observation (with decreasing average)
     * @return isNew          Whether TWAB is new or calling twice in the same block
     */
    function decreaseBalance(
        Account storage _account,
        uint208 _amount,
        string memory _revertMessage,
        uint32 _currentTime
    )
        internal
        returns (
            AccountDetails memory accountDetails,
            ObservationLib.Observation memory twab,
            bool isNew
        )
    {
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails = _account.details;

        require(_accountDetails.balance >= _amount, _revertMessage);

        (accountDetails, twab, isNew) = _nextTwab(_account.twabs, _accountDetails, _currentTime);
        unchecked {
            accountDetails.balance -= _amount;
        }
    }

    /** @notice Calculates the average balance held by a user for a given time frame.
      * @dev    Finds the average balance between start and end timestamp epochs.
                Validates the supplied end time is within the range of elapsed time i.e. less then timestamp of now.
      * @param _twabs          Individual user Observation recorded checkpoints passed as storage pointer
      * @param _accountDetails User AccountDetails struct loaded in memory
      * @param _startTime      Start of timestamp range as an epoch
      * @param _endTime        End of timestamp range as an epoch
      * @param _currentTime    Block.timestamp
      * @return Average balance of user held between epoch timestamps start and end
    */
    function getAverageBalanceBetween(
        ObservationLib.Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] storage _twabs,
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails,
        uint32 _startTime,
        uint32 _endTime,
        uint32 _currentTime
    ) internal view returns (uint256) {
        uint32 endTime = _endTime > _currentTime ? _currentTime : _endTime;

        return
            _getAverageBalanceBetween(_twabs, _accountDetails, _startTime, endTime, _currentTime);
    }

    /// @notice Retrieves the oldest TWAB
    /// @param _twabs The storage array of twabs
    /// @param _accountDetails The TWAB account details
    /// @return index The index of the oldest TWAB in the twabs array
    /// @return twab The oldest TWAB
    function oldestTwab(
        ObservationLib.Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] storage _twabs,
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails
    ) internal view returns (uint24 index, ObservationLib.Observation memory twab) {
        index = _accountDetails.nextTwabIndex;
        twab = _twabs[index];

        // If the TWAB is not initialized we go to the beginning of the TWAB circular buffer at index 0
        if (twab.timestamp == 0) {
            index = 0;
            twab = _twabs[0];
        }
    }

    /// @notice Retrieves the newest TWAB
    /// @param _twabs The storage array of twabs
    /// @param _accountDetails The TWAB account details
    /// @return index The index of the newest TWAB in the twabs array
    /// @return twab The newest TWAB
    function newestTwab(
        ObservationLib.Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] storage _twabs,
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails
    ) internal view returns (uint24 index, ObservationLib.Observation memory twab) {
        index = uint24(RingBufferLib.newestIndex(_accountDetails.nextTwabIndex, MAX_CARDINALITY));
        twab = _twabs[index];
    }

    /// @notice Retrieves amount at `_targetTime` timestamp
    /// @param _twabs List of TWABs to search through.
    /// @param _accountDetails Accounts details
    /// @param _targetTime Timestamp at which the reserved TWAB should be for.
    /// @return uint256 TWAB amount at `_targetTime`.
    function getBalanceAt(
        ObservationLib.Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] storage _twabs,
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails,
        uint32 _targetTime,
        uint32 _currentTime
    ) internal view returns (uint256) {
        uint32 timeToTarget = _targetTime > _currentTime ? _currentTime : _targetTime;
        return _getBalanceAt(_twabs, _accountDetails, timeToTarget, _currentTime);
    }

    /// @notice Calculates the average balance held by a user for a given time frame.
    /// @param _startTime The start time of the time frame.
    /// @param _endTime The end time of the time frame.
    /// @return The average balance that the user held during the time frame.
    function _getAverageBalanceBetween(
        ObservationLib.Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] storage _twabs,
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails,
        uint32 _startTime,
        uint32 _endTime,
        uint32 _currentTime
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        (uint24 oldestTwabIndex, ObservationLib.Observation memory oldTwab) = oldestTwab(
            _twabs,
            _accountDetails
        );

        (uint24 newestTwabIndex, ObservationLib.Observation memory newTwab) = newestTwab(
            _twabs,
            _accountDetails
        );

        ObservationLib.Observation memory startTwab = _calculateTwab(
            _twabs,
            _accountDetails,
            newTwab,
            oldTwab,
            newestTwabIndex,
            oldestTwabIndex,
            _startTime,
            _currentTime
        );

        ObservationLib.Observation memory endTwab = _calculateTwab(
            _twabs,
            _accountDetails,
            newTwab,
            oldTwab,
            newestTwabIndex,
            oldestTwabIndex,
            _endTime,
            _currentTime
        );

        // Difference in amount / time
        return (endTwab.amount - startTwab.amount) / OverflowSafeComparatorLib.checkedSub(endTwab.timestamp, startTwab.timestamp, _currentTime);
    }

    /** @notice Searches TWAB history and calculate the difference between amount(s)/timestamp(s) to return average balance
                between the Observations closes to the supplied targetTime.
      * @param _twabs          Individual user Observation recorded checkpoints passed as storage pointer
      * @param _accountDetails User AccountDetails struct loaded in memory
      * @param _targetTime     Target timestamp to filter Observations in the ring buffer binary search
      * @param _currentTime    Block.timestamp
      * @return uint256 Time-weighted average amount between two closest observations.
    */
    function _getBalanceAt(
        ObservationLib.Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] storage _twabs,
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails,
        uint32 _targetTime,
        uint32 _currentTime
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        uint24 newestTwabIndex;
        ObservationLib.Observation memory afterOrAt;
        ObservationLib.Observation memory beforeOrAt;
        (newestTwabIndex, beforeOrAt) = newestTwab(_twabs, _accountDetails);

        // If `_targetTime` is chronologically after the newest TWAB, we can simply return the current balance
        if (beforeOrAt.timestamp.lte(_targetTime, _currentTime)) {
            return _accountDetails.balance;
        }

        uint24 oldestTwabIndex;
        // Now, set before to the oldest TWAB
        (oldestTwabIndex, beforeOrAt) = oldestTwab(_twabs, _accountDetails);

        // If `_targetTime` is chronologically before the oldest TWAB, we can early return
        if (_targetTime.lt(beforeOrAt.timestamp, _currentTime)) {
            return 0;
        }

        // Otherwise, we perform the `binarySearch`
        (beforeOrAt, afterOrAt) = ObservationLib.binarySearch(
            _twabs,
            newestTwabIndex,
            oldestTwabIndex,
            _targetTime,
            _accountDetails.cardinality,
            _currentTime
        );

        // Sum the difference in amounts and divide by the difference in timestamps.
        // The time-weighted average balance uses time measured between two epoch timestamps as
        // a constaint on the measurement when calculating the time weighted average balance.
        return
            (afterOrAt.amount - beforeOrAt.amount) / OverflowSafeComparatorLib.checkedSub(afterOrAt.timestamp, beforeOrAt.timestamp, _currentTime);
    }

    /** @notice Calculates a user TWAB for a target timestamp using the historical TWAB records.
                The balance is linearly interpolated: amount differences / timestamp differences
                using the simple (after.amount - before.amount / end.timestamp - start.timestamp) formula.
    /** @dev    Binary search in _calculateTwab fails when searching out of bounds. Thus, before
                searching we exclude target timestamps out of range of newest/oldest TWAB(s).
                IF a search is before or after the range we "extrapolate" a Observation from the expected state.
      * @param _twabs           Individual user Observation recorded checkpoints passed as storage pointer
      * @param _accountDetails  User AccountDetails struct loaded in memory
      * @param _newestTwab      Newest TWAB in history (end of ring buffer)
      * @param _oldestTwab      Olderst TWAB in history (end of ring buffer)
      * @param _newestTwabIndex Pointer in ring buffer to newest TWAB
      * @param _oldestTwabIndex Pointer in ring buffer to oldest TWAB
      * @param _targetTimestamp Epoch timestamp to calculate for time (T) in the TWAB
      * @param _time            Block.timestamp
      * @return accountDetails Updated Account.details struct
    */
    function _calculateTwab(
        ObservationLib.Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] storage _twabs,
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails,
        ObservationLib.Observation memory _newestTwab,
        ObservationLib.Observation memory _oldestTwab,
        uint24 _newestTwabIndex,
        uint24 _oldestTwabIndex,
        uint32 _targetTimestamp,
        uint32 _time
    ) private view returns (ObservationLib.Observation memory) {
        // If `_targetTimestamp` is chronologically after the newest TWAB, we extrapolate a new one
        if (_newestTwab.timestamp.lt(_targetTimestamp, _time)) {
            return _computeNextTwab(_newestTwab, _accountDetails.balance, _targetTimestamp);
        }

        if (_newestTwab.timestamp == _targetTimestamp) {
            return _newestTwab;
        }

        if (_oldestTwab.timestamp == _targetTimestamp) {
            return _oldestTwab;
        }

        // If `_targetTimestamp` is chronologically before the oldest TWAB, we create a zero twab
        if (_targetTimestamp.lt(_oldestTwab.timestamp, _time)) {
            return ObservationLib.Observation({ amount: 0, timestamp: _targetTimestamp });
        }

        // Otherwise, both timestamps must be surrounded by twabs.
        (
            ObservationLib.Observation memory beforeOrAtStart,
            ObservationLib.Observation memory afterOrAtStart
        ) = ObservationLib.binarySearch(
                _twabs,
                _newestTwabIndex,
                _oldestTwabIndex,
                _targetTimestamp,
                _accountDetails.cardinality,
                _time
            );

        uint224 heldBalance = (afterOrAtStart.amount - beforeOrAtStart.amount) /
            OverflowSafeComparatorLib.checkedSub(afterOrAtStart.timestamp, beforeOrAtStart.timestamp, _time);

        return _computeNextTwab(beforeOrAtStart, heldBalance, _targetTimestamp);
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates the next TWAB using the newestTwab and updated balance.
     * @dev    Storage of the TWAB obersation is managed by the calling function and not _computeNextTwab.
     * @param _currentTwab    Newest Observation in the Account.twabs list
     * @param _currentBalance User balance at time of most recent (newest) checkpoint write
     * @param _time           Current block.timestamp
     * @return TWAB Observation
     */
    function _computeNextTwab(
        ObservationLib.Observation memory _currentTwab,
        uint224 _currentBalance,
        uint32 _time
    ) private pure returns (ObservationLib.Observation memory) {
        // New twab amount = last twab amount (or zero) + (current amount * elapsed seconds)
        return
            ObservationLib.Observation({
                amount: _currentTwab.amount +
                    _currentBalance *
                    (_time.checkedSub(_currentTwab.timestamp, _time)),
                timestamp: _time
            });
    }

    /// @notice Sets a new TWAB Observation at the next available index and returns the new account details.
    /// @dev Note that if _currentTime is before the last observation timestamp, it appears as an overflow
    /// @param _twabs The twabs array to insert into
    /// @param _accountDetails The current account details
    /// @param _currentTime The current time
    /// @return accountDetails The new account details
    /// @return twab The newest twab (may or may not be brand-new)
    /// @return isNew Whether the newest twab was created by this call
    function _nextTwab(
        ObservationLib.Observation[MAX_CARDINALITY] storage _twabs,
        AccountDetails memory _accountDetails,
        uint32 _currentTime
    )
        private
        returns (
            AccountDetails memory accountDetails,
            ObservationLib.Observation memory twab,
            bool isNew
        )
    {
        (, ObservationLib.Observation memory _newestTwab) = newestTwab(_twabs, _accountDetails);

        // if we're in the same block, return
        if (_newestTwab.timestamp == _currentTime) {
            return (_accountDetails, _newestTwab, false);
        }

        ObservationLib.Observation memory newTwab = _computeNextTwab(
            _newestTwab,
            _accountDetails.balance,
            _currentTime
        );

        _twabs[_accountDetails.nextTwabIndex] = newTwab;

        AccountDetails memory nextAccountDetails = push(_accountDetails);

        return (nextAccountDetails, newTwab, true);
    }

    /// @notice "Pushes" a new element on the AccountDetails ring buffer, and returns the new AccountDetails
    /// @param _accountDetails The account details from which to pull the cardinality and next index
    /// @return The new AccountDetails
    function push(AccountDetails memory _accountDetails)
        internal
        pure
        returns (AccountDetails memory)
    {
        _accountDetails.nextTwabIndex = uint24(
            RingBufferLib.nextIndex(_accountDetails.nextTwabIndex, MAX_CARDINALITY)
        );

        // Prevent the Account specific cardinality from exceeding the MAX_CARDINALITY.
        // The ring buffer length is limited by MAX_CARDINALITY. IF the account.cardinality
        // exceeds the max cardinality, new observations would be incorrectly set or the
        // observation would be out of "bounds" of the ring buffer. Once reached the
        // AccountDetails.cardinality will continue to be equal to max cardinality.
        if (_accountDetails.cardinality < MAX_CARDINALITY) {
            _accountDetails.cardinality += 1;
        }

        return _accountDetails;
    }
}

Settings
{
  "evmVersion": "berlin",
  "libraries": {},
  "metadata": {
    "bytecodeHash": "ipfs",
    "useLiteralContent": true
  },
  "optimizer": {
    "enabled": true,
    "runs": 2000
  },
  "remappings": [],
  "outputSelection": {
    "*": {
      "*": [
        "evm.bytecode",
        "evm.deployedBytecode",
        "abi"
      ]
    }
  }
}

Contract Security Audit

Contract ABI

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ObservationLib.Observation","name":"newTotalSupplyTwab","type":"tuple"}],"name":"NewTotalSupplyTwab","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"delegate","type":"address"},{"components":[{"internalType":"uint224","name":"amount","type":"uint224"},{"internalType":"uint32","name":"timestamp","type":"uint32"}],"indexed":false,"internalType":"struct ObservationLib.Observation","name":"newTwab","type":"tuple"}],"name":"NewUserTwab","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":false,"internalType":"string","name":"name","type":"string"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"string","name":"symbol","type":"string"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint8","name":"decimals","type":"uint8"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"controller","type":"address"}],"name":"TicketInitialized","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"from","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"to","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Transfer","type":"event"},{"inputs":[],"name":"DOMAIN_SEPARATOR","outputs":[{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"","type":"bytes32"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"owner","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"}],"name":"allowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"approve","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"account","type":"address"}],"name":"balanceOf","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"controller","outputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"_amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"controllerBurn","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_operator","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"_amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"controllerBurnFrom","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"_to","type":"address"}],"name":"controllerDelegateFor","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"_amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"controllerMint","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"decimals","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint8","name":"","type":"uint8"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"subtractedValue","type":"uint256"}],"name":"decreaseAllowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_to","type":"address"}],"name":"delegate","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"}],"name":"delegateOf","outputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"_newDelegate","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"_deadline","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint8","name":"_v","type":"uint8"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"_r","type":"bytes32"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"_s","type":"bytes32"}],"name":"delegateWithSignature","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"}],"name":"getAccountDetails","outputs":[{"components":[{"internalType":"uint208","name":"balance","type":"uint208"},{"internalType":"uint24","name":"nextTwabIndex","type":"uint24"},{"internalType":"uint24","name":"cardinality","type":"uint24"}],"internalType":"struct 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ObservationLib.Observation","name":"","type":"tuple"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"addedValue","type":"uint256"}],"name":"increaseAllowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"name","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"owner","type":"address"}],"name":"nonces","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"owner","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"deadline","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint8","name":"v","type":"uint8"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"r","type":"bytes32"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"s","type":"bytes32"}],"name":"permit","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"symbol","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"totalSupply","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"recipient","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transfer","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"sender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"recipient","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transferFrom","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"}]

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Constructor Arguments (ABI-Encoded and is the last bytes of the Contract Creation Code above)

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

-----Decoded View---------------
Arg [0] : _name (string): PoolTogether aUSDC Ticket
Arg [1] : _symbol (string): PTaUSDC
Arg [2] : decimals_ (uint8): 6
Arg [3] : _controller (address): 0x19de635fb3678d8b8154e37d8c9cdf182fe84e60

-----Encoded View---------------
8 Constructor Arguments found :
Arg [0] : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000080
Arg [1] : 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000c0
Arg [2] : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006
Arg [3] : 00000000000000000000000019de635fb3678d8b8154e37d8c9cdf182fe84e60
Arg [4] : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000019
Arg [5] : 506f6f6c546f676574686572206155534443205469636b657400000000000000
Arg [6] : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007
Arg [7] : 5054615553444300000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000


Block Transaction Gas Used Reward
Age Block Fee Address BC Fee Address Voting Power Jailed Incoming
Block Uncle Number Difficulty Gas Used Reward
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