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532430372024-02-07 19:09:52109 days ago1707332992  Contract Creation0 MATIC
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Minimal Proxy Contract for 0x0def22a7e9a6364d3929aec417d7fa6073330dbf

Contract Name:
CoCreateERC721A

Compiler Version
v0.8.17+commit.8df45f5f

Optimization Enabled:
Yes with 200 runs

Other Settings:
default evmVersion

Contract Source Code (Solidity Standard Json-Input format)

File 1 of 23 : CoCreateERC721A.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity =0.8.17;

import "erc721a-upgradeable/contracts/ERC721AUpgradeable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable/access/OwnableUpgradeable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable/token/common/ERC2981Upgradeable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable/token/ERC20/IERC20Upgradeable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable/utils/CountersUpgradeable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable/utils/AddressUpgradeable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable/utils/cryptography/draft-EIP712Upgradeable.sol";
import "./IERC4494.sol";
import "./IERC4906.sol";

// CoCreateERC721A is an upgradable ERC721A contract that can be minted by the owner.
// It supports royalties, setting the base URI, and setting the mint limit.
contract CoCreateERC721A is
  OwnableUpgradeable,
  ERC2981Upgradeable,
  IERC4494,
  IERC4906,
  EIP712Upgradeable,
  ERC721AUpgradeable
{
  using CountersUpgradeable for CountersUpgradeable.Counter;

  event AddressAddedToAllowList(address addr);
  event AddressRemovedFromAllowList(address addr);
  event TransferAllowListUpdated(bool isTransferAllowlisted);
  event TokenPurchase(address indexed buyer, uint256 price, address currency);

  mapping(uint256 => CountersUpgradeable.Counter) private _nonces;

  uint256 private nativeTokenPrice;
  uint256 private erc20TokenPrice;
  address private acceptedERC20Token;
  bool private isNFTForSale;

  // solhint-disable-next-line var-name-mixedcase
  bytes32 private constant _PERMIT_TYPEHASH =
    keccak256("Permit(address spender,uint256 tokenId,uint256 nonce,uint256 deadline)");

  event RoyaltyUpdated(address recipient, uint96 feeNumerator);
  event MintLimitUpdated(uint256 mintLimit);
  event BaseURIUpdated(string baseURI);
  event NFTDetails(string name, string symbol);

  uint256 private constant MINT_NO_LIMIT = 0;

  // The base URI for all tokens.
  string private baseURI;
  // The maximum number of tokens that can be minted.
  uint256 private mintLimit;
  bool private isTransferAllowlistRestricted;
  mapping(address => bool) public transferAllowList;

  // Initialize the ERC721A with
  // name: The name of the token.
  // symbol: The symbol of the token.
  // baseURI_: The base URI for all tokens.
  // royaltyRecipient_: The address that will receive royalties.
  // royaltyFeeNumerator_: The numerator of the royalty fee.
  // mintLimit_: The maximum number of tokens that can be minted.
  // owner_: The owner of the contract.
  //
  function initialize(
    string memory name_,
    string memory symbol_,
    string memory baseURI_,
    address royaltyRecipient_,
    uint96 royaltyFeeNumerator_,
    uint256 mintLimit_,
    address owner_,
    bool _isTransferAllowlistRestricted,
    address[] memory initialAllowList
  ) public initializerERC721A initializer {
    __EIP712_init_unchained(name_, "1");
    __Ownable_init();
    __ERC721A_init(name_, symbol_);
    _setDefaultRoyalty(royaltyRecipient_, royaltyFeeNumerator_);
    baseURI = baseURI_;
    mintLimit = mintLimit_;
    if (_isTransferAllowlistRestricted) {
      updateAllowlist(initialAllowList, new address[](0), _isTransferAllowlistRestricted);
    }
    _transferOwnership(owner_);
    emit RoyaltyUpdated(royaltyRecipient_, royaltyFeeNumerator_);
    emit MintLimitUpdated(mintLimit_);
    emit BaseURIUpdated(baseURI_);
    emit NFTDetails(name_, symbol_);
  }

  // Set the default royalty fee and recipient.
  function setDefaultRoyalty(address recipient, uint96 feeNumerator) external onlyOwner {
    _setDefaultRoyalty(recipient, feeNumerator);
    emit RoyaltyUpdated(recipient, feeNumerator);
  }

  function updateAllowlist(
    address[] memory addAddresses,
    address[] memory removeAddresses,
    bool _isTransferAllowlistRestricted
  ) public onlyOwner {
    if (_isTransferAllowlistRestricted != isTransferAllowlistRestricted) {
      isTransferAllowlistRestricted = _isTransferAllowlistRestricted;
      emit TransferAllowListUpdated(_isTransferAllowlistRestricted);
    }
    for (uint256 i = 0; i < addAddresses.length; ++i) {
      require(addAddresses[i] != address(0), "invalid address");
      transferAllowList[addAddresses[i]] = true;
      emit AddressAddedToAllowList(addAddresses[i]);
    }
    for (uint256 i = 0; i < removeAddresses.length; ++i) {
      if (transferAllowList[removeAddresses[i]]) {
        transferAllowList[removeAddresses[i]] = false;
        emit AddressRemovedFromAllowList(removeAddresses[i]);
      }
    }
  }

  // support ERC721A and ERC2981 interfaces
  function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId)
    public
    view
    virtual
    override(ERC2981Upgradeable, ERC721AUpgradeable)
    returns (bool)
  {
    return
      interfaceId == type(IERC4494).interfaceId ||
      ERC2981Upgradeable.supportsInterface(interfaceId) ||
      ERC721AUpgradeable.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
  }

  function _beforeTokenTransfers(
    address from,
    address to,
    uint256 startTokenId,
    uint256 quantity
  ) internal virtual override {
    validateTokenOperation(from, to);
    super._beforeTokenTransfers(from, to, startTokenId, quantity);
  }

  // Mint `quantity` tokens to the given address.
  // The caller must be the owner of the contract.
  // The total number of tokens minted must not exceed the mint limit.
  function mint(address to, uint256 quantity) public onlyOwner {
    require(quantity > 0, "quantity must be greater than 0");
    require(mintLimit == MINT_NO_LIMIT || _nextTokenId() + quantity <= mintLimit, "mint limit reached");
    _safeMint(to, quantity);
  }

  function mintBatch(address[] calldata recipients, uint256[] calldata amounts) public onlyOwner {
    require(recipients.length == amounts.length, "recipient and amount length mismatch");
    for (uint256 i = 0; i < recipients.length; ++i) {
      mint(recipients[i], amounts[i]);
    }
  }

  function permitTransfer(
    address from,
    address to,
    uint256 tokenId,
    address permit_spender,
    uint256 permit_deadline,
    bytes memory permit_sig
  ) public onlyOwner {
    permit(permit_spender, tokenId, permit_deadline, permit_sig);
    safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId);
  }

  // Set the base URI for all tokens.
  function setBaseURI(string memory baseURI_) external onlyOwner {
    baseURI = baseURI_;
    emit BaseURIUpdated(baseURI_);
  }

  // Update the maximum number of tokens that can be minted.
  function setMintLimit(uint256 mintLimit_) external onlyOwner {
    mintLimit = mintLimit_;
    emit MintLimitUpdated(mintLimit_);
  }

  // Returns the base URI for all tokens.
  function _baseURI() internal view virtual override returns (string memory) {
    return baseURI;
  }

  function permit(
    address spender,
    uint256 tokenId,
    uint256 deadline,
    bytes memory sig
  ) public override {
    require(block.timestamp <= deadline, "CoCreateERC721APermit: expired deadline");
    require(spender != address(0), "CoCreateERC721APermit: invalid spender");
    address owner = ownerOf(tokenId);
    require(owner != address(0), "CoCreateERC721APermit: invalid owner");
    bytes32 structHash = keccak256(abi.encode(_PERMIT_TYPEHASH, spender, tokenId, _useNonce(tokenId), deadline));
    bytes32 hash = _hashTypedDataV4(structHash);
    address signer = ECDSAUpgradeable.recover(hash, sig);
    require(signer == owner, "CoCreateERC721APermit: invalid signature");
    _approve(spender, tokenId);
  }

  function nonces(uint256 tokenId) external view override returns (uint256) {
    return _nonces[tokenId].current();
  }

  function DOMAIN_SEPARATOR() external view override returns (bytes32) {
    return _domainSeparatorV4();
  }

  /**
   * @dev "Consume a nonce": return the current value and increment
   */
  function _useNonce(uint256 tokenId) internal virtual returns (uint256 current) {
    CountersUpgradeable.Counter storage nonce = _nonces[tokenId];
    current = nonce.current();
    nonce.increment();
  }

  // A token transfer is valid under the following conditions.
  // This allows the owner to restrict transfers to a specific set of addresses if needed.
  // 1. isTransferAllowlistRestricted is false
  // 2. isTransferAllowlistRestricted is true and either the sender or receiver is on the allowlist
  function validateTokenOperation(address from, address to) internal view virtual {
    if (!isTransferAllowlistRestricted) {
      return;
    }

    bool isMintOrBurn = from == address(0) || to == address(0);
    bool isEitherAddressOwner = from == owner() || to == owner();
    bool isEitherAddressOnAllowlist = transferAllowList[from] || transferAllowList[to];

    // Allow the following:
    //  - Minting or burning of tokens
    //  - Transferring from/to contract owner
    //  - Transferring from/to allow listed address
    if (isMintOrBurn || isEitherAddressOwner || isEitherAddressOnAllowlist) {
      return;
    }

    revert("Transfer not allowed");
  }

  function setNFTForSale(
    bool isNFTForSale_,
    uint256 erc20TokenPrice_,
    uint256 nativeTokenPrice_,
    address acceptedERC20Token_
  ) external onlyOwner {
    isNFTForSale = isNFTForSale_;
    erc20TokenPrice = erc20TokenPrice_;
    nativeTokenPrice = nativeTokenPrice_;
    acceptedERC20Token = acceptedERC20Token_;
  }

  function purchaseWithNativeToken(address buyer_) external payable {
    require(isNFTForSale, "NFT is not for sale");
    require(nativeTokenPrice != 0, "nativeTokenPrice token price is 0");
    require(msg.value == nativeTokenPrice, "Incorrect amount");
    _safeMint(buyer_, 1);
    AddressUpgradeable.sendValue(payable(owner()), nativeTokenPrice);
    emit TokenPurchase(buyer_, nativeTokenPrice, address(0));
  }

  function purchaseWithERC20Token(address buyer_) external {
    require(isNFTForSale, "NFT is not for sale");
    require(erc20TokenPrice != 0, "erc20TokenPrice token price is 0");
    require(acceptedERC20Token != address(0), "acceptedERC20Token is not set");
    IERC20Upgradeable(acceptedERC20Token).transferFrom(msg.sender, owner(), erc20TokenPrice);
    _safeMint(buyer_, 1);
    emit TokenPurchase(buyer_, erc20TokenPrice, acceptedERC20Token);
  }

  // Emit token metadata update
  function refreshTokenMetadata(uint256 tokenId) external {
    emit MetadataUpdate(tokenId);
  }

  // Emit token metadata update
  function refreshTokenRangeMetadata(uint256 fromTokenId, uint256 toTokenId) external {
    require(toTokenId > fromTokenId, "Invalid token range");
    emit BatchMetadataUpdate(fromTokenId, toTokenId);
  }
}

File 2 of 23 : ERC721AUpgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// ERC721A Contracts v4.2.3
// Creator: Chiru Labs

pragma solidity ^0.8.4;

import './IERC721AUpgradeable.sol';
import {ERC721AStorage} from './ERC721AStorage.sol';
import './ERC721A__Initializable.sol';

/**
 * @dev Interface of ERC721 token receiver.
 */
interface ERC721A__IERC721ReceiverUpgradeable {
    function onERC721Received(
        address operator,
        address from,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external returns (bytes4);
}

/**
 * @title ERC721A
 *
 * @dev Implementation of the [ERC721](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-721)
 * Non-Fungible Token Standard, including the Metadata extension.
 * Optimized for lower gas during batch mints.
 *
 * Token IDs are minted in sequential order (e.g. 0, 1, 2, 3, ...)
 * starting from `_startTokenId()`.
 *
 * Assumptions:
 *
 * - An owner cannot have more than 2**64 - 1 (max value of uint64) of supply.
 * - The maximum token ID cannot exceed 2**256 - 1 (max value of uint256).
 */
contract ERC721AUpgradeable is ERC721A__Initializable, IERC721AUpgradeable {
    using ERC721AStorage for ERC721AStorage.Layout;

    // =============================================================
    //                           CONSTANTS
    // =============================================================

    // Mask of an entry in packed address data.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_ADDRESS_DATA_ENTRY = (1 << 64) - 1;

    // The bit position of `numberMinted` in packed address data.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_NUMBER_MINTED = 64;

    // The bit position of `numberBurned` in packed address data.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_NUMBER_BURNED = 128;

    // The bit position of `aux` in packed address data.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_AUX = 192;

    // Mask of all 256 bits in packed address data except the 64 bits for `aux`.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_AUX_COMPLEMENT = (1 << 192) - 1;

    // The bit position of `startTimestamp` in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_START_TIMESTAMP = 160;

    // The bit mask of the `burned` bit in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_BURNED = 1 << 224;

    // The bit position of the `nextInitialized` bit in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_NEXT_INITIALIZED = 225;

    // The bit mask of the `nextInitialized` bit in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED = 1 << 225;

    // The bit position of `extraData` in packed ownership.
    uint256 private constant _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA = 232;

    // Mask of all 256 bits in a packed ownership except the 24 bits for `extraData`.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_EXTRA_DATA_COMPLEMENT = (1 << 232) - 1;

    // The mask of the lower 160 bits for addresses.
    uint256 private constant _BITMASK_ADDRESS = (1 << 160) - 1;

    // The maximum `quantity` that can be minted with {_mintERC2309}.
    // This limit is to prevent overflows on the address data entries.
    // For a limit of 5000, a total of 3.689e15 calls to {_mintERC2309}
    // is required to cause an overflow, which is unrealistic.
    uint256 private constant _MAX_MINT_ERC2309_QUANTITY_LIMIT = 5000;

    // The `Transfer` event signature is given by:
    // `keccak256(bytes("Transfer(address,address,uint256)"))`.
    bytes32 private constant _TRANSFER_EVENT_SIGNATURE =
        0xddf252ad1be2c89b69c2b068fc378daa952ba7f163c4a11628f55a4df523b3ef;

    // =============================================================
    //                          CONSTRUCTOR
    // =============================================================

    function __ERC721A_init(string memory name_, string memory symbol_) internal onlyInitializingERC721A {
        __ERC721A_init_unchained(name_, symbol_);
    }

    function __ERC721A_init_unchained(string memory name_, string memory symbol_) internal onlyInitializingERC721A {
        ERC721AStorage.layout()._name = name_;
        ERC721AStorage.layout()._symbol = symbol_;
        ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex = _startTokenId();
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                   TOKEN COUNTING OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the starting token ID.
     * To change the starting token ID, please override this function.
     */
    function _startTokenId() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return 0;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the next token ID to be minted.
     */
    function _nextTokenId() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the total number of tokens in existence.
     * Burned tokens will reduce the count.
     * To get the total number of tokens minted, please see {_totalMinted}.
     */
    function totalSupply() public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        // Counter underflow is impossible as _burnCounter cannot be incremented
        // more than `_currentIndex - _startTokenId()` times.
        unchecked {
            return ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex - ERC721AStorage.layout()._burnCounter - _startTokenId();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the total amount of tokens minted in the contract.
     */
    function _totalMinted() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        // Counter underflow is impossible as `_currentIndex` does not decrement,
        // and it is initialized to `_startTokenId()`.
        unchecked {
            return ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex - _startTokenId();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the total number of tokens burned.
     */
    function _totalBurned() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return ERC721AStorage.layout()._burnCounter;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                    ADDRESS DATA OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of tokens in `owner`'s account.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        if (owner == address(0)) revert BalanceQueryForZeroAddress();
        return ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[owner] & _BITMASK_ADDRESS_DATA_ENTRY;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of tokens minted by `owner`.
     */
    function _numberMinted(address owner) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return
            (ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[owner] >> _BITPOS_NUMBER_MINTED) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS_DATA_ENTRY;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of tokens burned by or on behalf of `owner`.
     */
    function _numberBurned(address owner) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return
            (ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[owner] >> _BITPOS_NUMBER_BURNED) & _BITMASK_ADDRESS_DATA_ENTRY;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the auxiliary data for `owner`. (e.g. number of whitelist mint slots used).
     */
    function _getAux(address owner) internal view returns (uint64) {
        return uint64(ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[owner] >> _BITPOS_AUX);
    }

    /**
     * Sets the auxiliary data for `owner`. (e.g. number of whitelist mint slots used).
     * If there are multiple variables, please pack them into a uint64.
     */
    function _setAux(address owner, uint64 aux) internal virtual {
        uint256 packed = ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[owner];
        uint256 auxCasted;
        // Cast `aux` with assembly to avoid redundant masking.
        assembly {
            auxCasted := aux
        }
        packed = (packed & _BITMASK_AUX_COMPLEMENT) | (auxCasted << _BITPOS_AUX);
        ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[owner] = packed;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                            IERC165
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * [EIP section](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified)
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        // The interface IDs are constants representing the first 4 bytes
        // of the XOR of all function selectors in the interface.
        // See: [ERC165](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165)
        // (e.g. `bytes4(i.functionA.selector ^ i.functionB.selector ^ ...)`)
        return
            interfaceId == 0x01ffc9a7 || // ERC165 interface ID for ERC165.
            interfaceId == 0x80ac58cd || // ERC165 interface ID for ERC721.
            interfaceId == 0x5b5e139f; // ERC165 interface ID for ERC721Metadata.
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                        IERC721Metadata
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection name.
     */
    function name() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return ERC721AStorage.layout()._name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection symbol.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return ERC721AStorage.layout()._symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for `tokenId` token.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        if (!_exists(tokenId)) revert URIQueryForNonexistentToken();

        string memory baseURI = _baseURI();
        return bytes(baseURI).length != 0 ? string(abi.encodePacked(baseURI, _toString(tokenId))) : '';
    }

    /**
     * @dev Base URI for computing {tokenURI}. If set, the resulting URI for each
     * token will be the concatenation of the `baseURI` and the `tokenId`. Empty
     * by default, it can be overridden in child contracts.
     */
    function _baseURI() internal view virtual returns (string memory) {
        return '';
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                     OWNERSHIPS OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the owner of the `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        return address(uint160(_packedOwnershipOf(tokenId)));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Gas spent here starts off proportional to the maximum mint batch size.
     * It gradually moves to O(1) as tokens get transferred around over time.
     */
    function _ownershipOf(uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (TokenOwnership memory) {
        return _unpackedOwnership(_packedOwnershipOf(tokenId));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the unpacked `TokenOwnership` struct at `index`.
     */
    function _ownershipAt(uint256 index) internal view virtual returns (TokenOwnership memory) {
        return _unpackedOwnership(ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[index]);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the ownership slot minted at `index` for efficiency purposes.
     */
    function _initializeOwnershipAt(uint256 index) internal virtual {
        if (ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[index] == 0) {
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[index] = _packedOwnershipOf(index);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns the packed ownership data of `tokenId`.
     */
    function _packedOwnershipOf(uint256 tokenId) private view returns (uint256 packed) {
        if (_startTokenId() <= tokenId) {
            packed = ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[tokenId];
            // If not burned.
            if (packed & _BITMASK_BURNED == 0) {
                // If the data at the starting slot does not exist, start the scan.
                if (packed == 0) {
                    if (tokenId >= ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex) revert OwnerQueryForNonexistentToken();
                    // Invariant:
                    // There will always be an initialized ownership slot
                    // (i.e. `ownership.addr != address(0) && ownership.burned == false`)
                    // before an unintialized ownership slot
                    // (i.e. `ownership.addr == address(0) && ownership.burned == false`)
                    // Hence, `tokenId` will not underflow.
                    //
                    // We can directly compare the packed value.
                    // If the address is zero, packed will be zero.
                    for (;;) {
                        unchecked {
                            packed = ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[--tokenId];
                        }
                        if (packed == 0) continue;
                        return packed;
                    }
                }
                // Otherwise, the data exists and is not burned. We can skip the scan.
                // This is possible because we have already achieved the target condition.
                // This saves 2143 gas on transfers of initialized tokens.
                return packed;
            }
        }
        revert OwnerQueryForNonexistentToken();
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the unpacked `TokenOwnership` struct from `packed`.
     */
    function _unpackedOwnership(uint256 packed) private pure returns (TokenOwnership memory ownership) {
        ownership.addr = address(uint160(packed));
        ownership.startTimestamp = uint64(packed >> _BITPOS_START_TIMESTAMP);
        ownership.burned = packed & _BITMASK_BURNED != 0;
        ownership.extraData = uint24(packed >> _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Packs ownership data into a single uint256.
     */
    function _packOwnershipData(address owner, uint256 flags) private view returns (uint256 result) {
        assembly {
            // Mask `owner` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
            owner := and(owner, _BITMASK_ADDRESS)
            // `owner | (block.timestamp << _BITPOS_START_TIMESTAMP) | flags`.
            result := or(owner, or(shl(_BITPOS_START_TIMESTAMP, timestamp()), flags))
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the `nextInitialized` flag set if `quantity` equals 1.
     */
    function _nextInitializedFlag(uint256 quantity) private pure returns (uint256 result) {
        // For branchless setting of the `nextInitialized` flag.
        assembly {
            // `(quantity == 1) << _BITPOS_NEXT_INITIALIZED`.
            result := shl(_BITPOS_NEXT_INITIALIZED, eq(quantity, 1))
        }
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                      APPROVAL OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account. See {ERC721A-_approve}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) public payable virtual override {
        _approve(to, tokenId, true);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the account approved for `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        if (!_exists(tokenId)) revert ApprovalQueryForNonexistentToken();

        return ERC721AStorage.layout()._tokenApprovals[tokenId].value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Approve or remove `operator` as an operator for the caller.
     * Operators can call {transferFrom} or {safeTransferFrom}
     * for any token owned by the caller.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The `operator` cannot be the caller.
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) public virtual override {
        ERC721AStorage.layout()._operatorApprovals[_msgSenderERC721A()][operator] = approved;
        emit ApprovalForAll(_msgSenderERC721A(), operator, approved);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns if the `operator` is allowed to manage all of the assets of `owner`.
     *
     * See {setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return ERC721AStorage.layout()._operatorApprovals[owner][operator];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `tokenId` exists.
     *
     * Tokens can be managed by their owner or approved accounts via {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Tokens start existing when they are minted. See {_mint}.
     */
    function _exists(uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (bool) {
        return
            _startTokenId() <= tokenId &&
            tokenId < ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex && // If within bounds,
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[tokenId] & _BITMASK_BURNED == 0; // and not burned.
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `msgSender` is equal to `approvedAddress` or `owner`.
     */
    function _isSenderApprovedOrOwner(
        address approvedAddress,
        address owner,
        address msgSender
    ) private pure returns (bool result) {
        assembly {
            // Mask `owner` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
            owner := and(owner, _BITMASK_ADDRESS)
            // Mask `msgSender` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
            msgSender := and(msgSender, _BITMASK_ADDRESS)
            // `msgSender == owner || msgSender == approvedAddress`.
            result := or(eq(msgSender, owner), eq(msgSender, approvedAddress))
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the storage slot and value for the approved address of `tokenId`.
     */
    function _getApprovedSlotAndAddress(uint256 tokenId)
        private
        view
        returns (uint256 approvedAddressSlot, address approvedAddress)
    {
        ERC721AStorage.TokenApprovalRef storage tokenApproval = ERC721AStorage.layout()._tokenApprovals[tokenId];
        // The following is equivalent to `approvedAddress = _tokenApprovals[tokenId].value`.
        assembly {
            approvedAddressSlot := tokenApproval.slot
            approvedAddress := sload(approvedAddressSlot)
        }
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                      TRANSFER OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token
     * by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public payable virtual override {
        uint256 prevOwnershipPacked = _packedOwnershipOf(tokenId);

        if (address(uint160(prevOwnershipPacked)) != from) revert TransferFromIncorrectOwner();

        (uint256 approvedAddressSlot, address approvedAddress) = _getApprovedSlotAndAddress(tokenId);

        // The nested ifs save around 20+ gas over a compound boolean condition.
        if (!_isSenderApprovedOrOwner(approvedAddress, from, _msgSenderERC721A()))
            if (!isApprovedForAll(from, _msgSenderERC721A())) revert TransferCallerNotOwnerNorApproved();

        if (to == address(0)) revert TransferToZeroAddress();

        _beforeTokenTransfers(from, to, tokenId, 1);

        // Clear approvals from the previous owner.
        assembly {
            if approvedAddress {
                // This is equivalent to `delete _tokenApprovals[tokenId]`.
                sstore(approvedAddressSlot, 0)
            }
        }

        // Underflow of the sender's balance is impossible because we check for
        // ownership above and the recipient's balance can't realistically overflow.
        // Counter overflow is incredibly unrealistic as `tokenId` would have to be 2**256.
        unchecked {
            // We can directly increment and decrement the balances.
            --ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[from]; // Updates: `balance -= 1`.
            ++ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[to]; // Updates: `balance += 1`.

            // Updates:
            // - `address` to the next owner.
            // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of transfering.
            // - `burned` to `false`.
            // - `nextInitialized` to `true`.
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[tokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                to,
                _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED | _nextExtraData(from, to, prevOwnershipPacked)
            );

            // If the next slot may not have been initialized (i.e. `nextInitialized == false`) .
            if (prevOwnershipPacked & _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED == 0) {
                uint256 nextTokenId = tokenId + 1;
                // If the next slot's address is zero and not burned (i.e. packed value is zero).
                if (ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] == 0) {
                    // If the next slot is within bounds.
                    if (nextTokenId != ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex) {
                        // Initialize the next slot to maintain correctness for `ownerOf(tokenId + 1)`.
                        ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] = prevOwnershipPacked;
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        emit Transfer(from, to, tokenId);
        _afterTokenTransfers(from, to, tokenId, 1);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, '')`.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public payable virtual override {
        safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, '');
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token
     * by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement
     * {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) public payable virtual override {
        transferFrom(from, to, tokenId);
        if (to.code.length != 0)
            if (!_checkContractOnERC721Received(from, to, tokenId, _data)) {
                revert TransferToNonERC721ReceiverImplementer();
            }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before a set of serially-ordered token IDs
     * are about to be transferred. This includes minting.
     * And also called before burning one token.
     *
     * `startTokenId` - the first token ID to be transferred.
     * `quantity` - the amount to be transferred.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `from`'s `tokenId` will be
     * transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `tokenId` will be minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, `tokenId` will be burned by `from`.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfers(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 startTokenId,
        uint256 quantity
    ) internal virtual {}

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called after a set of serially-ordered token IDs
     * have been transferred. This includes minting.
     * And also called after one token has been burned.
     *
     * `startTokenId` - the first token ID to be transferred.
     * `quantity` - the amount to be transferred.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `from`'s `tokenId` has been
     * transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `tokenId` has been minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, `tokenId` has been burned by `from`.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     */
    function _afterTokenTransfers(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 startTokenId,
        uint256 quantity
    ) internal virtual {}

    /**
     * @dev Private function to invoke {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} on a target contract.
     *
     * `from` - Previous owner of the given token ID.
     * `to` - Target address that will receive the token.
     * `tokenId` - Token ID to be transferred.
     * `_data` - Optional data to send along with the call.
     *
     * Returns whether the call correctly returned the expected magic value.
     */
    function _checkContractOnERC721Received(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) private returns (bool) {
        try
            ERC721A__IERC721ReceiverUpgradeable(to).onERC721Received(_msgSenderERC721A(), from, tokenId, _data)
        returns (bytes4 retval) {
            return retval == ERC721A__IERC721ReceiverUpgradeable(to).onERC721Received.selector;
        } catch (bytes memory reason) {
            if (reason.length == 0) {
                revert TransferToNonERC721ReceiverImplementer();
            } else {
                assembly {
                    revert(add(32, reason), mload(reason))
                }
            }
        }
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                        MINT OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Mints `quantity` tokens and transfers them to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `quantity` must be greater than 0.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event for each mint.
     */
    function _mint(address to, uint256 quantity) internal virtual {
        uint256 startTokenId = ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex;
        if (quantity == 0) revert MintZeroQuantity();

        _beforeTokenTransfers(address(0), to, startTokenId, quantity);

        // Overflows are incredibly unrealistic.
        // `balance` and `numberMinted` have a maximum limit of 2**64.
        // `tokenId` has a maximum limit of 2**256.
        unchecked {
            // Updates:
            // - `balance += quantity`.
            // - `numberMinted += quantity`.
            //
            // We can directly add to the `balance` and `numberMinted`.
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[to] += quantity * ((1 << _BITPOS_NUMBER_MINTED) | 1);

            // Updates:
            // - `address` to the owner.
            // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of minting.
            // - `burned` to `false`.
            // - `nextInitialized` to `quantity == 1`.
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[startTokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                to,
                _nextInitializedFlag(quantity) | _nextExtraData(address(0), to, 0)
            );

            uint256 toMasked;
            uint256 end = startTokenId + quantity;

            // Use assembly to loop and emit the `Transfer` event for gas savings.
            // The duplicated `log4` removes an extra check and reduces stack juggling.
            // The assembly, together with the surrounding Solidity code, have been
            // delicately arranged to nudge the compiler into producing optimized opcodes.
            assembly {
                // Mask `to` to the lower 160 bits, in case the upper bits somehow aren't clean.
                toMasked := and(to, _BITMASK_ADDRESS)
                // Emit the `Transfer` event.
                log4(
                    0, // Start of data (0, since no data).
                    0, // End of data (0, since no data).
                    _TRANSFER_EVENT_SIGNATURE, // Signature.
                    0, // `address(0)`.
                    toMasked, // `to`.
                    startTokenId // `tokenId`.
                )

                // The `iszero(eq(,))` check ensures that large values of `quantity`
                // that overflows uint256 will make the loop run out of gas.
                // The compiler will optimize the `iszero` away for performance.
                for {
                    let tokenId := add(startTokenId, 1)
                } iszero(eq(tokenId, end)) {
                    tokenId := add(tokenId, 1)
                } {
                    // Emit the `Transfer` event. Similar to above.
                    log4(0, 0, _TRANSFER_EVENT_SIGNATURE, 0, toMasked, tokenId)
                }
            }
            if (toMasked == 0) revert MintToZeroAddress();

            ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex = end;
        }
        _afterTokenTransfers(address(0), to, startTokenId, quantity);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Mints `quantity` tokens and transfers them to `to`.
     *
     * This function is intended for efficient minting only during contract creation.
     *
     * It emits only one {ConsecutiveTransfer} as defined in
     * [ERC2309](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2309),
     * instead of a sequence of {Transfer} event(s).
     *
     * Calling this function outside of contract creation WILL make your contract
     * non-compliant with the ERC721 standard.
     * For full ERC721 compliance, substituting ERC721 {Transfer} event(s) with the ERC2309
     * {ConsecutiveTransfer} event is only permissible during contract creation.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `quantity` must be greater than 0.
     *
     * Emits a {ConsecutiveTransfer} event.
     */
    function _mintERC2309(address to, uint256 quantity) internal virtual {
        uint256 startTokenId = ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex;
        if (to == address(0)) revert MintToZeroAddress();
        if (quantity == 0) revert MintZeroQuantity();
        if (quantity > _MAX_MINT_ERC2309_QUANTITY_LIMIT) revert MintERC2309QuantityExceedsLimit();

        _beforeTokenTransfers(address(0), to, startTokenId, quantity);

        // Overflows are unrealistic due to the above check for `quantity` to be below the limit.
        unchecked {
            // Updates:
            // - `balance += quantity`.
            // - `numberMinted += quantity`.
            //
            // We can directly add to the `balance` and `numberMinted`.
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[to] += quantity * ((1 << _BITPOS_NUMBER_MINTED) | 1);

            // Updates:
            // - `address` to the owner.
            // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of minting.
            // - `burned` to `false`.
            // - `nextInitialized` to `quantity == 1`.
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[startTokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                to,
                _nextInitializedFlag(quantity) | _nextExtraData(address(0), to, 0)
            );

            emit ConsecutiveTransfer(startTokenId, startTokenId + quantity - 1, address(0), to);

            ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex = startTokenId + quantity;
        }
        _afterTokenTransfers(address(0), to, startTokenId, quantity);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely mints `quantity` tokens and transfers them to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement
     * {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called for each safe transfer.
     * - `quantity` must be greater than 0.
     *
     * See {_mint}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event for each mint.
     */
    function _safeMint(
        address to,
        uint256 quantity,
        bytes memory _data
    ) internal virtual {
        _mint(to, quantity);

        unchecked {
            if (to.code.length != 0) {
                uint256 end = ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex;
                uint256 index = end - quantity;
                do {
                    if (!_checkContractOnERC721Received(address(0), to, index++, _data)) {
                        revert TransferToNonERC721ReceiverImplementer();
                    }
                } while (index < end);
                // Reentrancy protection.
                if (ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex != end) revert();
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `_safeMint(to, quantity, '')`.
     */
    function _safeMint(address to, uint256 quantity) internal virtual {
        _safeMint(to, quantity, '');
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                       APPROVAL OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `_approve(to, tokenId, false)`.
     */
    function _approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _approve(to, tokenId, false);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is transferred.
     *
     * Only a single account can be approved at a time, so approving the
     * zero address clears previous approvals.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function _approve(
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bool approvalCheck
    ) internal virtual {
        address owner = ownerOf(tokenId);

        if (approvalCheck)
            if (_msgSenderERC721A() != owner)
                if (!isApprovedForAll(owner, _msgSenderERC721A())) {
                    revert ApprovalCallerNotOwnerNorApproved();
                }

        ERC721AStorage.layout()._tokenApprovals[tokenId].value = to;
        emit Approval(owner, to, tokenId);
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                        BURN OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `_burn(tokenId, false)`.
     */
    function _burn(uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _burn(tokenId, false);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `tokenId`.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is burned.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _burn(uint256 tokenId, bool approvalCheck) internal virtual {
        uint256 prevOwnershipPacked = _packedOwnershipOf(tokenId);

        address from = address(uint160(prevOwnershipPacked));

        (uint256 approvedAddressSlot, address approvedAddress) = _getApprovedSlotAndAddress(tokenId);

        if (approvalCheck) {
            // The nested ifs save around 20+ gas over a compound boolean condition.
            if (!_isSenderApprovedOrOwner(approvedAddress, from, _msgSenderERC721A()))
                if (!isApprovedForAll(from, _msgSenderERC721A())) revert TransferCallerNotOwnerNorApproved();
        }

        _beforeTokenTransfers(from, address(0), tokenId, 1);

        // Clear approvals from the previous owner.
        assembly {
            if approvedAddress {
                // This is equivalent to `delete _tokenApprovals[tokenId]`.
                sstore(approvedAddressSlot, 0)
            }
        }

        // Underflow of the sender's balance is impossible because we check for
        // ownership above and the recipient's balance can't realistically overflow.
        // Counter overflow is incredibly unrealistic as `tokenId` would have to be 2**256.
        unchecked {
            // Updates:
            // - `balance -= 1`.
            // - `numberBurned += 1`.
            //
            // We can directly decrement the balance, and increment the number burned.
            // This is equivalent to `packed -= 1; packed += 1 << _BITPOS_NUMBER_BURNED;`.
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedAddressData[from] += (1 << _BITPOS_NUMBER_BURNED) - 1;

            // Updates:
            // - `address` to the last owner.
            // - `startTimestamp` to the timestamp of burning.
            // - `burned` to `true`.
            // - `nextInitialized` to `true`.
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[tokenId] = _packOwnershipData(
                from,
                (_BITMASK_BURNED | _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED) | _nextExtraData(from, address(0), prevOwnershipPacked)
            );

            // If the next slot may not have been initialized (i.e. `nextInitialized == false`) .
            if (prevOwnershipPacked & _BITMASK_NEXT_INITIALIZED == 0) {
                uint256 nextTokenId = tokenId + 1;
                // If the next slot's address is zero and not burned (i.e. packed value is zero).
                if (ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] == 0) {
                    // If the next slot is within bounds.
                    if (nextTokenId != ERC721AStorage.layout()._currentIndex) {
                        // Initialize the next slot to maintain correctness for `ownerOf(tokenId + 1)`.
                        ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[nextTokenId] = prevOwnershipPacked;
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        emit Transfer(from, address(0), tokenId);
        _afterTokenTransfers(from, address(0), tokenId, 1);

        // Overflow not possible, as _burnCounter cannot be exceed _currentIndex times.
        unchecked {
            ERC721AStorage.layout()._burnCounter++;
        }
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                     EXTRA DATA OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Directly sets the extra data for the ownership data `index`.
     */
    function _setExtraDataAt(uint256 index, uint24 extraData) internal virtual {
        uint256 packed = ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[index];
        if (packed == 0) revert OwnershipNotInitializedForExtraData();
        uint256 extraDataCasted;
        // Cast `extraData` with assembly to avoid redundant masking.
        assembly {
            extraDataCasted := extraData
        }
        packed = (packed & _BITMASK_EXTRA_DATA_COMPLEMENT) | (extraDataCasted << _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA);
        ERC721AStorage.layout()._packedOwnerships[index] = packed;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Called during each token transfer to set the 24bit `extraData` field.
     * Intended to be overridden by the cosumer contract.
     *
     * `previousExtraData` - the value of `extraData` before transfer.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `from`'s `tokenId` will be
     * transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `tokenId` will be minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, `tokenId` will be burned by `from`.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     */
    function _extraData(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint24 previousExtraData
    ) internal view virtual returns (uint24) {}

    /**
     * @dev Returns the next extra data for the packed ownership data.
     * The returned result is shifted into position.
     */
    function _nextExtraData(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 prevOwnershipPacked
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        uint24 extraData = uint24(prevOwnershipPacked >> _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA);
        return uint256(_extraData(from, to, extraData)) << _BITPOS_EXTRA_DATA;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                       OTHER OPERATIONS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the message sender (defaults to `msg.sender`).
     *
     * If you are writing GSN compatible contracts, you need to override this function.
     */
    function _msgSenderERC721A() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a uint256 to its ASCII string decimal representation.
     */
    function _toString(uint256 value) internal pure virtual returns (string memory str) {
        assembly {
            // The maximum value of a uint256 contains 78 digits (1 byte per digit), but
            // we allocate 0xa0 bytes to keep the free memory pointer 32-byte word aligned.
            // We will need 1 word for the trailing zeros padding, 1 word for the length,
            // and 3 words for a maximum of 78 digits. Total: 5 * 0x20 = 0xa0.
            let m := add(mload(0x40), 0xa0)
            // Update the free memory pointer to allocate.
            mstore(0x40, m)
            // Assign the `str` to the end.
            str := sub(m, 0x20)
            // Zeroize the slot after the string.
            mstore(str, 0)

            // Cache the end of the memory to calculate the length later.
            let end := str

            // We write the string from rightmost digit to leftmost digit.
            // The following is essentially a do-while loop that also handles the zero case.
            // prettier-ignore
            for { let temp := value } 1 {} {
                str := sub(str, 1)
                // Write the character to the pointer.
                // The ASCII index of the '0' character is 48.
                mstore8(str, add(48, mod(temp, 10)))
                // Keep dividing `temp` until zero.
                temp := div(temp, 10)
                // prettier-ignore
                if iszero(temp) { break }
            }

            let length := sub(end, str)
            // Move the pointer 32 bytes leftwards to make room for the length.
            str := sub(str, 0x20)
            // Store the length.
            mstore(str, length)
        }
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : OwnableUpgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (access/Ownable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../utils/ContextUpgradeable.sol";
import "../proxy/utils/Initializable.sol";

/**
 * @dev Contract module which provides a basic access control mechanism, where
 * there is an account (an owner) that can be granted exclusive access to
 * specific functions.
 *
 * By default, the owner account will be the one that deploys the contract. This
 * can later be changed with {transferOwnership}.
 *
 * This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the modifier
 * `onlyOwner`, which can be applied to your functions to restrict their use to
 * the owner.
 */
abstract contract OwnableUpgradeable is Initializable, ContextUpgradeable {
    address private _owner;

    event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner);

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract setting the deployer as the initial owner.
     */
    function __Ownable_init() internal onlyInitializing {
        __Ownable_init_unchained();
    }

    function __Ownable_init_unchained() internal onlyInitializing {
        _transferOwnership(_msgSender());
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
     */
    modifier onlyOwner() {
        _checkOwner();
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address of the current owner.
     */
    function owner() public view virtual returns (address) {
        return _owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if the sender is not the owner.
     */
    function _checkOwner() internal view virtual {
        require(owner() == _msgSender(), "Ownable: caller is not the owner");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Leaves the contract without owner. It will not be possible to call
     * `onlyOwner` functions anymore. Can only be called by the current owner.
     *
     * NOTE: Renouncing ownership will leave the contract without an owner,
     * thereby removing any functionality that is only available to the owner.
     */
    function renounceOwnership() public virtual onlyOwner {
        _transferOwnership(address(0));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Can only be called by the current owner.
     */
    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public virtual onlyOwner {
        require(newOwner != address(0), "Ownable: new owner is the zero address");
        _transferOwnership(newOwner);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Internal function without access restriction.
     */
    function _transferOwnership(address newOwner) internal virtual {
        address oldOwner = _owner;
        _owner = newOwner;
        emit OwnershipTransferred(oldOwner, newOwner);
    }

    /**
     * @dev This empty reserved space is put in place to allow future versions to add new
     * variables without shifting down storage in the inheritance chain.
     * See https://docs.openzeppelin.com/contracts/4.x/upgradeable#storage_gaps
     */
    uint256[49] private __gap;
}

File 2 of 23 : ERC2981Upgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (token/common/ERC2981.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../../interfaces/IERC2981Upgradeable.sol";
import "../../utils/introspection/ERC165Upgradeable.sol";
import "../../proxy/utils/Initializable.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the NFT Royalty Standard, a standardized way to retrieve royalty payment information.
 *
 * Royalty information can be specified globally for all token ids via {_setDefaultRoyalty}, and/or individually for
 * specific token ids via {_setTokenRoyalty}. The latter takes precedence over the first.
 *
 * Royalty is specified as a fraction of sale price. {_feeDenominator} is overridable but defaults to 10000, meaning the
 * fee is specified in basis points by default.
 *
 * IMPORTANT: ERC-2981 only specifies a way to signal royalty information and does not enforce its payment. See
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2981#optional-royalty-payments[Rationale] in the EIP. Marketplaces are expected to
 * voluntarily pay royalties together with sales, but note that this standard is not yet widely supported.
 *
 * _Available since v4.5._
 */
abstract contract ERC2981Upgradeable is Initializable, IERC2981Upgradeable, ERC165Upgradeable {
    function __ERC2981_init() internal onlyInitializing {
    }

    function __ERC2981_init_unchained() internal onlyInitializing {
    }
    struct RoyaltyInfo {
        address receiver;
        uint96 royaltyFraction;
    }

    RoyaltyInfo private _defaultRoyaltyInfo;
    mapping(uint256 => RoyaltyInfo) private _tokenRoyaltyInfo;

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override(IERC165Upgradeable, ERC165Upgradeable) returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IERC2981Upgradeable).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    /**
     * @inheritdoc IERC2981Upgradeable
     */
    function royaltyInfo(uint256 _tokenId, uint256 _salePrice) public view virtual override returns (address, uint256) {
        RoyaltyInfo memory royalty = _tokenRoyaltyInfo[_tokenId];

        if (royalty.receiver == address(0)) {
            royalty = _defaultRoyaltyInfo;
        }

        uint256 royaltyAmount = (_salePrice * royalty.royaltyFraction) / _feeDenominator();

        return (royalty.receiver, royaltyAmount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev The denominator with which to interpret the fee set in {_setTokenRoyalty} and {_setDefaultRoyalty} as a
     * fraction of the sale price. Defaults to 10000 so fees are expressed in basis points, but may be customized by an
     * override.
     */
    function _feeDenominator() internal pure virtual returns (uint96) {
        return 10000;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets the royalty information that all ids in this contract will default to.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `receiver` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `feeNumerator` cannot be greater than the fee denominator.
     */
    function _setDefaultRoyalty(address receiver, uint96 feeNumerator) internal virtual {
        require(feeNumerator <= _feeDenominator(), "ERC2981: royalty fee will exceed salePrice");
        require(receiver != address(0), "ERC2981: invalid receiver");

        _defaultRoyaltyInfo = RoyaltyInfo(receiver, feeNumerator);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Removes default royalty information.
     */
    function _deleteDefaultRoyalty() internal virtual {
        delete _defaultRoyaltyInfo;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets the royalty information for a specific token id, overriding the global default.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `receiver` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `feeNumerator` cannot be greater than the fee denominator.
     */
    function _setTokenRoyalty(
        uint256 tokenId,
        address receiver,
        uint96 feeNumerator
    ) internal virtual {
        require(feeNumerator <= _feeDenominator(), "ERC2981: royalty fee will exceed salePrice");
        require(receiver != address(0), "ERC2981: Invalid parameters");

        _tokenRoyaltyInfo[tokenId] = RoyaltyInfo(receiver, feeNumerator);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Resets royalty information for the token id back to the global default.
     */
    function _resetTokenRoyalty(uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        delete _tokenRoyaltyInfo[tokenId];
    }

    /**
     * @dev This empty reserved space is put in place to allow future versions to add new
     * variables without shifting down storage in the inheritance chain.
     * See https://docs.openzeppelin.com/contracts/4.x/upgradeable#storage_gaps
     */
    uint256[48] private __gap;
}

File 2 of 23 : IERC20Upgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.6.0) (token/ERC20/IERC20.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP.
 */
interface IERC20Upgradeable {
    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
     * another (`to`).
     *
     * Note that `value` may be zero.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
     * a call to {approve}. `value` is the new allowance.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens in existence.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens owned by `account`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from the caller's account to `to`.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transfer(address to, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
     * allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through {transferFrom}. This is
     * zero by default.
     *
     * This value changes when {approve} or {transferFrom} are called.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the caller's tokens.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
     * that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
     * transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
     * condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
     * desired value afterwards:
     * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from `from` to `to` using the
     * allowance mechanism. `amount` is then deducted from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 amount
    ) external returns (bool);
}

File 2 of 23 : ECDSA.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../Strings.sol";

/**
 * @dev Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) operations.
 *
 * These functions can be used to verify that a message was signed by the holder
 * of the private keys of a given address.
 */
library ECDSA {
    enum RecoverError {
        NoError,
        InvalidSignature,
        InvalidSignatureLength,
        InvalidSignatureS,
        InvalidSignatureV
    }

    function _throwError(RecoverError error) private pure {
        if (error == RecoverError.NoError) {
            return; // no error: do nothing
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignature) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature length");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature 's' value");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureV) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature 'v' value");
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature` or error string. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM opcode allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     *
     * Documentation for signature generation:
     * - with https://web3js.readthedocs.io/en/v1.3.4/web3-eth-accounts.html#sign[Web3.js]
     * - with https://docs.ethers.io/v5/api/signer/#Signer-signMessage[ethers]
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        // Check the signature length
        // - case 65: r,s,v signature (standard)
        // - case 64: r,vs signature (cf https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098) _Available since v4.1._
        if (signature.length == 65) {
            bytes32 r;
            bytes32 s;
            uint8 v;
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                s := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
                v := byte(0, mload(add(signature, 0x60)))
            }
            return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        } else if (signature.length == 64) {
            bytes32 r;
            bytes32 vs;
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                vs := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
            }
            return tryRecover(hash, r, vs);
        } else {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature`. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM opcode allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     */
    function recover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, signature);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `r` and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     *
     * See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098[EIP-2098 short signatures]
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(
        bytes32 hash,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 vs
    ) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        bytes32 s = vs & bytes32(0x7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff);
        uint8 v = uint8((uint256(vs) >> 255) + 27);
        return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `r and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     *
     * _Available since v4.2._
     */
    function recover(
        bytes32 hash,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 vs
    ) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, r, vs);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(
        bytes32 hash,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        // EIP-2 still allows signature malleability for ecrecover(). Remove this possibility and make the signature
        // unique. Appendix F in the Ethereum Yellow paper (https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf), defines
        // the valid range for s in (301): 0 < s < secp256k1n ÷ 2 + 1, and for v in (302): v ∈ {27, 28}. Most
        // signatures from current libraries generate a unique signature with an s-value in the lower half order.
        //
        // If your library generates malleable signatures, such as s-values in the upper range, calculate a new s-value
        // with 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEBAAEDCE6AF48A03BBFD25E8CD0364141 - s1 and flip v from 27 to 28 or
        // vice versa. If your library also generates signatures with 0/1 for v instead 27/28, add 27 to v to accept
        // these malleable signatures as well.
        if (uint256(s) > 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF5D576E7357A4501DDFE92F46681B20A0) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS);
        }
        if (v != 27 && v != 28) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureV);
        }

        // If the signature is valid (and not malleable), return the signer address
        address signer = ecrecover(hash, v, r, s);
        if (signer == address(0)) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignature);
        }

        return (signer, RecoverError.NoError);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     */
    function recover(
        bytes32 hash,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Message, created from a `hash`. This
     * produces hash corresponding to the one signed with the
     * https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-191.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes32 hash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        // 32 is the length in bytes of hash,
        // enforced by the type signature above
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n32", hash));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Message, created from `s`. This
     * produces hash corresponding to the one signed with the
     * https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-191.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes memory s) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n", Strings.toString(s.length), s));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Typed Data, created from a
     * `domainSeparator` and a `structHash`. This produces hash corresponding
     * to the one signed with the
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[`eth_signTypedData`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-712.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toTypedDataHash(bytes32 domainSeparator, bytes32 structHash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19\x01", domainSeparator, structHash));
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : CountersUpgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/Counters.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @title Counters
 * @author Matt Condon (@shrugs)
 * @dev Provides counters that can only be incremented, decremented or reset. This can be used e.g. to track the number
 * of elements in a mapping, issuing ERC721 ids, or counting request ids.
 *
 * Include with `using Counters for Counters.Counter;`
 */
library CountersUpgradeable {
    struct Counter {
        // This variable should never be directly accessed by users of the library: interactions must be restricted to
        // the library's function. As of Solidity v0.5.2, this cannot be enforced, though there is a proposal to add
        // this feature: see https://github.com/ethereum/solidity/issues/4637
        uint256 _value; // default: 0
    }

    function current(Counter storage counter) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return counter._value;
    }

    function increment(Counter storage counter) internal {
        unchecked {
            counter._value += 1;
        }
    }

    function decrement(Counter storage counter) internal {
        uint256 value = counter._value;
        require(value > 0, "Counter: decrement overflow");
        unchecked {
            counter._value = value - 1;
        }
    }

    function reset(Counter storage counter) internal {
        counter._value = 0;
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : AddressUpgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (utils/Address.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.1;

/**
 * @dev Collection of functions related to the address type
 */
library AddressUpgradeable {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if `account` is a contract.
     *
     * [IMPORTANT]
     * ====
     * It is unsafe to assume that an address for which this function returns
     * false is an externally-owned account (EOA) and not a contract.
     *
     * Among others, `isContract` will return false for the following
     * types of addresses:
     *
     *  - an externally-owned account
     *  - a contract in construction
     *  - an address where a contract will be created
     *  - an address where a contract lived, but was destroyed
     * ====
     *
     * [IMPORTANT]
     * ====
     * You shouldn't rely on `isContract` to protect against flash loan attacks!
     *
     * Preventing calls from contracts is highly discouraged. It breaks composability, breaks support for smart wallets
     * like Gnosis Safe, and does not provide security since it can be circumvented by calling from a contract
     * constructor.
     * ====
     */
    function isContract(address account) internal view returns (bool) {
        // This method relies on extcodesize/address.code.length, which returns 0
        // for contracts in construction, since the code is only stored at the end
        // of the constructor execution.

        return account.code.length > 0;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Replacement for Solidity's `transfer`: sends `amount` wei to
     * `recipient`, forwarding all available gas and reverting on errors.
     *
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1884[EIP1884] increases the gas cost
     * of certain opcodes, possibly making contracts go over the 2300 gas limit
     * imposed by `transfer`, making them unable to receive funds via
     * `transfer`. {sendValue} removes this limitation.
     *
     * https://diligence.consensys.net/posts/2019/09/stop-using-soliditys-transfer-now/[Learn more].
     *
     * IMPORTANT: because control is transferred to `recipient`, care must be
     * taken to not create reentrancy vulnerabilities. Consider using
     * {ReentrancyGuard} or the
     * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.5.11/security-considerations.html#use-the-checks-effects-interactions-pattern[checks-effects-interactions pattern].
     */
    function sendValue(address payable recipient, uint256 amount) internal {
        require(address(this).balance >= amount, "Address: insufficient balance");

        (bool success, ) = recipient.call{value: amount}("");
        require(success, "Address: unable to send value, recipient may have reverted");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Performs a Solidity function call using a low level `call`. A
     * plain `call` is an unsafe replacement for a function call: use this
     * function instead.
     *
     * If `target` reverts with a revert reason, it is bubbled up by this
     * function (like regular Solidity function calls).
     *
     * Returns the raw returned data. To convert to the expected return value,
     * use https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/latest/units-and-global-variables.html?highlight=abi.decode#abi-encoding-and-decoding-functions[`abi.decode`].
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `target` must be a contract.
     * - calling `target` with `data` must not revert.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCall(target, data, "Address: low-level call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`], but with
     * `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, 0, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but also transferring `value` wei to `target`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the calling contract must have an ETH balance of at least `value`.
     * - the called Solidity function must be `payable`.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        uint256 value
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionCallWithValue(target, data, value, "Address: low-level call with value failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCallWithValue-address-bytes-uint256-}[`functionCallWithValue`], but
     * with `errorMessage` as a fallback revert reason when `target` reverts.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    function functionCallWithValue(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        uint256 value,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal returns (bytes memory) {
        require(address(this).balance >= value, "Address: insufficient balance for call");
        require(isContract(target), "Address: call to non-contract");

        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.call{value: value}(data);
        return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a static call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.3._
     */
    function functionStaticCall(address target, bytes memory data) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
        return functionStaticCall(target, data, "Address: low-level static call failed");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-Address-functionCall-address-bytes-string-}[`functionCall`],
     * but performing a static call.
     *
     * _Available since v3.3._
     */
    function functionStaticCall(
        address target,
        bytes memory data,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal view returns (bytes memory) {
        require(isContract(target), "Address: static call to non-contract");

        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = target.staticcall(data);
        return verifyCallResult(success, returndata, errorMessage);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Tool to verifies that a low level call was successful, and revert if it wasn't, either by bubbling the
     * revert reason using the provided one.
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function verifyCallResult(
        bool success,
        bytes memory returndata,
        string memory errorMessage
    ) internal pure returns (bytes memory) {
        if (success) {
            return returndata;
        } else {
            // Look for revert reason and bubble it up if present
            if (returndata.length > 0) {
                // The easiest way to bubble the revert reason is using memory via assembly
                /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
                assembly {
                    let returndata_size := mload(returndata)
                    revert(add(32, returndata), returndata_size)
                }
            } else {
                revert(errorMessage);
            }
        }
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : draft-EIP712Upgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/cryptography/draft-EIP712.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./ECDSAUpgradeable.sol";
import "../../proxy/utils/Initializable.sol";

/**
 * @dev https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[EIP 712] is a standard for hashing and signing of typed structured data.
 *
 * The encoding specified in the EIP is very generic, and such a generic implementation in Solidity is not feasible,
 * thus this contract does not implement the encoding itself. Protocols need to implement the type-specific encoding
 * they need in their contracts using a combination of `abi.encode` and `keccak256`.
 *
 * This contract implements the EIP 712 domain separator ({_domainSeparatorV4}) that is used as part of the encoding
 * scheme, and the final step of the encoding to obtain the message digest that is then signed via ECDSA
 * ({_hashTypedDataV4}).
 *
 * The implementation of the domain separator was designed to be as efficient as possible while still properly updating
 * the chain id to protect against replay attacks on an eventual fork of the chain.
 *
 * NOTE: This contract implements the version of the encoding known as "v4", as implemented by the JSON RPC method
 * https://docs.metamask.io/guide/signing-data.html[`eth_signTypedDataV4` in MetaMask].
 *
 * _Available since v3.4._
 *
 * @custom:storage-size 52
 */
abstract contract EIP712Upgradeable is Initializable {
    /* solhint-disable var-name-mixedcase */
    bytes32 private _HASHED_NAME;
    bytes32 private _HASHED_VERSION;
    bytes32 private constant _TYPE_HASH = keccak256("EIP712Domain(string name,string version,uint256 chainId,address verifyingContract)");

    /* solhint-enable var-name-mixedcase */

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the domain separator and parameter caches.
     *
     * The meaning of `name` and `version` is specified in
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712#definition-of-domainseparator[EIP 712]:
     *
     * - `name`: the user readable name of the signing domain, i.e. the name of the DApp or the protocol.
     * - `version`: the current major version of the signing domain.
     *
     * NOTE: These parameters cannot be changed except through a xref:learn::upgrading-smart-contracts.adoc[smart
     * contract upgrade].
     */
    function __EIP712_init(string memory name, string memory version) internal onlyInitializing {
        __EIP712_init_unchained(name, version);
    }

    function __EIP712_init_unchained(string memory name, string memory version) internal onlyInitializing {
        bytes32 hashedName = keccak256(bytes(name));
        bytes32 hashedVersion = keccak256(bytes(version));
        _HASHED_NAME = hashedName;
        _HASHED_VERSION = hashedVersion;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the domain separator for the current chain.
     */
    function _domainSeparatorV4() internal view returns (bytes32) {
        return _buildDomainSeparator(_TYPE_HASH, _EIP712NameHash(), _EIP712VersionHash());
    }

    function _buildDomainSeparator(
        bytes32 typeHash,
        bytes32 nameHash,
        bytes32 versionHash
    ) private view returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encode(typeHash, nameHash, versionHash, block.chainid, address(this)));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Given an already https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712#definition-of-hashstruct[hashed struct], this
     * function returns the hash of the fully encoded EIP712 message for this domain.
     *
     * This hash can be used together with {ECDSA-recover} to obtain the signer of a message. For example:
     *
     * ```solidity
     * bytes32 digest = _hashTypedDataV4(keccak256(abi.encode(
     *     keccak256("Mail(address to,string contents)"),
     *     mailTo,
     *     keccak256(bytes(mailContents))
     * )));
     * address signer = ECDSA.recover(digest, signature);
     * ```
     */
    function _hashTypedDataV4(bytes32 structHash) internal view virtual returns (bytes32) {
        return ECDSAUpgradeable.toTypedDataHash(_domainSeparatorV4(), structHash);
    }

    /**
     * @dev The hash of the name parameter for the EIP712 domain.
     *
     * NOTE: This function reads from storage by default, but can be redefined to return a constant value if gas costs
     * are a concern.
     */
    function _EIP712NameHash() internal virtual view returns (bytes32) {
        return _HASHED_NAME;
    }

    /**
     * @dev The hash of the version parameter for the EIP712 domain.
     *
     * NOTE: This function reads from storage by default, but can be redefined to return a constant value if gas costs
     * are a concern.
     */
    function _EIP712VersionHash() internal virtual view returns (bytes32) {
        return _HASHED_VERSION;
    }

    /**
     * @dev This empty reserved space is put in place to allow future versions to add new
     * variables without shifting down storage in the inheritance chain.
     * See https://docs.openzeppelin.com/contracts/4.x/upgradeable#storage_gaps
     */
    uint256[50] private __gap;
}

File 2 of 23 : IERC4494.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity =0.8.17;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable/utils/introspection/IERC165Upgradeable.sol";

///
/// @dev Interface for token permits for ERC-721
///
interface IERC4494 {
  /// ERC165 bytes to add to interface array - set in parent contract
  ///
  /// _INTERFACE_ID_ERC4494 = 0x5604e225

  /// @notice Function to approve by way of owner signature
  /// @param spender the address to approve
  /// @param tokenId the index of the NFT to approve the spender on
  /// @param deadline a timestamp expiry for the permit
  /// @param sig a traditional or EIP-2098 signature
  function permit(
    address spender,
    uint256 tokenId,
    uint256 deadline,
    bytes memory sig
  ) external;

  /// @notice Returns the nonce of an NFT - useful for creating permits
  /// @param tokenId the index of the NFT to get the nonce of
  /// @return the uint256 representation of the nonce
  function nonces(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (uint256);

  /// @notice Returns the domain separator used in the encoding of the signature for permits, as defined by EIP-712
  /// @return the bytes32 domain separator
  function DOMAIN_SEPARATOR() external view returns (bytes32);
}

File 2 of 23 : IERC4906.sol
pragma solidity =0.8.17;

/// @title EIP-721 Metadata Update Extension
interface IERC4906 {
  /// @dev This event emits when the metadata of a token is changed.
  /// So that the third-party platforms such as NFT market could
  /// timely update the images and related attributes of the NFT.
  event MetadataUpdate(uint256 _tokenId);

  /// @dev This event emits when the metadata of a range of tokens is changed.
  /// So that the third-party platforms such as NFT market could
  /// timely update the images and related attributes of the NFTs.
  event BatchMetadataUpdate(uint256 _fromTokenId, uint256 _toTokenId);
}

File 2 of 23 : IERC721AUpgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// ERC721A Contracts v4.2.3
// Creator: Chiru Labs

pragma solidity ^0.8.4;

/**
 * @dev Interface of ERC721A.
 */
interface IERC721AUpgradeable {
    /**
     * The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     */
    error ApprovalCallerNotOwnerNorApproved();

    /**
     * The token does not exist.
     */
    error ApprovalQueryForNonexistentToken();

    /**
     * Cannot query the balance for the zero address.
     */
    error BalanceQueryForZeroAddress();

    /**
     * Cannot mint to the zero address.
     */
    error MintToZeroAddress();

    /**
     * The quantity of tokens minted must be more than zero.
     */
    error MintZeroQuantity();

    /**
     * The token does not exist.
     */
    error OwnerQueryForNonexistentToken();

    /**
     * The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     */
    error TransferCallerNotOwnerNorApproved();

    /**
     * The token must be owned by `from`.
     */
    error TransferFromIncorrectOwner();

    /**
     * Cannot safely transfer to a contract that does not implement the
     * ERC721Receiver interface.
     */
    error TransferToNonERC721ReceiverImplementer();

    /**
     * Cannot transfer to the zero address.
     */
    error TransferToZeroAddress();

    /**
     * The token does not exist.
     */
    error URIQueryForNonexistentToken();

    /**
     * The `quantity` minted with ERC2309 exceeds the safety limit.
     */
    error MintERC2309QuantityExceedsLimit();

    /**
     * The `extraData` cannot be set on an unintialized ownership slot.
     */
    error OwnershipNotInitializedForExtraData();

    // =============================================================
    //                            STRUCTS
    // =============================================================

    struct TokenOwnership {
        // The address of the owner.
        address addr;
        // Stores the start time of ownership with minimal overhead for tokenomics.
        uint64 startTimestamp;
        // Whether the token has been burned.
        bool burned;
        // Arbitrary data similar to `startTimestamp` that can be set via {_extraData}.
        uint24 extraData;
    }

    // =============================================================
    //                         TOKEN COUNTERS
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the total number of tokens in existence.
     * Burned tokens will reduce the count.
     * To get the total number of tokens minted, please see {_totalMinted}.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    // =============================================================
    //                            IERC165
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * [EIP section](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified)
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view returns (bool);

    // =============================================================
    //                            IERC721
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `tokenId` token is transferred from `from` to `to`.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables `approved` to manage the `tokenId` token.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed approved, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables or disables
     * (`approved`) `operator` to manage all of its assets.
     */
    event ApprovalForAll(address indexed owner, address indexed operator, bool approved);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of tokens in `owner`'s account.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) external view returns (uint256 balance);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the owner of the `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address owner);

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`,
     * checking first that contract recipients are aware of the ERC721 protocol
     * to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be have been allowed to move
     * this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement
     * {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external payable;

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to `safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, '')`.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external payable;

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Usage of this method is discouraged, use {safeTransferFrom}
     * whenever possible.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token
     * by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external payable;

    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is transferred.
     *
     * Only a single account can be approved at a time, so approving the
     * zero address clears previous approvals.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) external payable;

    /**
     * @dev Approve or remove `operator` as an operator for the caller.
     * Operators can call {transferFrom} or {safeTransferFrom}
     * for any token owned by the caller.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The `operator` cannot be the caller.
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool _approved) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns the account approved for `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address operator);

    /**
     * @dev Returns if the `operator` is allowed to manage all of the assets of `owner`.
     *
     * See {setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) external view returns (bool);

    // =============================================================
    //                        IERC721Metadata
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection name.
     */
    function name() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection symbol.
     */
    function symbol() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for `tokenId` token.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (string memory);

    // =============================================================
    //                           IERC2309
    // =============================================================

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when tokens in `fromTokenId` to `toTokenId`
     * (inclusive) is transferred from `from` to `to`, as defined in the
     * [ERC2309](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2309) standard.
     *
     * See {_mintERC2309} for more details.
     */
    event ConsecutiveTransfer(uint256 indexed fromTokenId, uint256 toTokenId, address indexed from, address indexed to);
}

File 2 of 23 : ERC721AStorage.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

library ERC721AStorage {
    // Bypass for a `--via-ir` bug (https://github.com/chiru-labs/ERC721A/pull/364).
    struct TokenApprovalRef {
        address value;
    }

    struct Layout {
        // =============================================================
        //                            STORAGE
        // =============================================================

        // The next token ID to be minted.
        uint256 _currentIndex;
        // The number of tokens burned.
        uint256 _burnCounter;
        // Token name
        string _name;
        // Token symbol
        string _symbol;
        // Mapping from token ID to ownership details
        // An empty struct value does not necessarily mean the token is unowned.
        // See {_packedOwnershipOf} implementation for details.
        //
        // Bits Layout:
        // - [0..159]   `addr`
        // - [160..223] `startTimestamp`
        // - [224]      `burned`
        // - [225]      `nextInitialized`
        // - [232..255] `extraData`
        mapping(uint256 => uint256) _packedOwnerships;
        // Mapping owner address to address data.
        //
        // Bits Layout:
        // - [0..63]    `balance`
        // - [64..127]  `numberMinted`
        // - [128..191] `numberBurned`
        // - [192..255] `aux`
        mapping(address => uint256) _packedAddressData;
        // Mapping from token ID to approved address.
        mapping(uint256 => ERC721AStorage.TokenApprovalRef) _tokenApprovals;
        // Mapping from owner to operator approvals
        mapping(address => mapping(address => bool)) _operatorApprovals;
    }

    bytes32 internal constant STORAGE_SLOT = keccak256('ERC721A.contracts.storage.ERC721A');

    function layout() internal pure returns (Layout storage l) {
        bytes32 slot = STORAGE_SLOT;
        assembly {
            l.slot := slot
        }
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : ERC721A__Initializable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev This is a base contract to aid in writing upgradeable diamond facet contracts, or any kind of contract that will be deployed
 * behind a proxy. Since proxied contracts do not make use of a constructor, it's common to move constructor logic to an
 * external initializer function, usually called `initialize`. It then becomes necessary to protect this initializer
 * function so it can only be called once. The {initializer} modifier provided by this contract will have this effect.
 *
 * TIP: To avoid leaving the proxy in an uninitialized state, the initializer function should be called as early as
 * possible by providing the encoded function call as the `_data` argument to {ERC1967Proxy-constructor}.
 *
 * CAUTION: When used with inheritance, manual care must be taken to not invoke a parent initializer twice, or to ensure
 * that all initializers are idempotent. This is not verified automatically as constructors are by Solidity.
 */

import {ERC721A__InitializableStorage} from './ERC721A__InitializableStorage.sol';

abstract contract ERC721A__Initializable {
    using ERC721A__InitializableStorage for ERC721A__InitializableStorage.Layout;

    /**
     * @dev Modifier to protect an initializer function from being invoked twice.
     */
    modifier initializerERC721A() {
        // If the contract is initializing we ignore whether _initialized is set in order to support multiple
        // inheritance patterns, but we only do this in the context of a constructor, because in other contexts the
        // contract may have been reentered.
        require(
            ERC721A__InitializableStorage.layout()._initializing
                ? _isConstructor()
                : !ERC721A__InitializableStorage.layout()._initialized,
            'ERC721A__Initializable: contract is already initialized'
        );

        bool isTopLevelCall = !ERC721A__InitializableStorage.layout()._initializing;
        if (isTopLevelCall) {
            ERC721A__InitializableStorage.layout()._initializing = true;
            ERC721A__InitializableStorage.layout()._initialized = true;
        }

        _;

        if (isTopLevelCall) {
            ERC721A__InitializableStorage.layout()._initializing = false;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Modifier to protect an initialization function so that it can only be invoked by functions with the
     * {initializer} modifier, directly or indirectly.
     */
    modifier onlyInitializingERC721A() {
        require(
            ERC721A__InitializableStorage.layout()._initializing,
            'ERC721A__Initializable: contract is not initializing'
        );
        _;
    }

    /// @dev Returns true if and only if the function is running in the constructor
    function _isConstructor() private view returns (bool) {
        // extcodesize checks the size of the code stored in an address, and
        // address returns the current address. Since the code is still not
        // deployed when running a constructor, any checks on its code size will
        // yield zero, making it an effective way to detect if a contract is
        // under construction or not.
        address self = address(this);
        uint256 cs;
        assembly {
            cs := extcodesize(self)
        }
        return cs == 0;
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : ERC721A__InitializableStorage.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev This is a base storage for the  initialization function for upgradeable diamond facet contracts
 **/

library ERC721A__InitializableStorage {
    struct Layout {
        /*
         * Indicates that the contract has been initialized.
         */
        bool _initialized;
        /*
         * Indicates that the contract is in the process of being initialized.
         */
        bool _initializing;
    }

    bytes32 internal constant STORAGE_SLOT = keccak256('ERC721A.contracts.storage.initializable.facet');

    function layout() internal pure returns (Layout storage l) {
        bytes32 slot = STORAGE_SLOT;
        assembly {
            l.slot := slot
        }
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : ContextUpgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/Context.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;
import "../proxy/utils/Initializable.sol";

/**
 * @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
 * sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
 * via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
 * manner, since when dealing with meta-transactions the account sending and
 * paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
 * is concerned).
 *
 * This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
 */
abstract contract ContextUpgradeable is Initializable {
    function __Context_init() internal onlyInitializing {
    }

    function __Context_init_unchained() internal onlyInitializing {
    }
    function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes calldata) {
        return msg.data;
    }

    /**
     * @dev This empty reserved space is put in place to allow future versions to add new
     * variables without shifting down storage in the inheritance chain.
     * See https://docs.openzeppelin.com/contracts/4.x/upgradeable#storage_gaps
     */
    uint256[50] private __gap;
}

File 2 of 23 : Initializable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (proxy/utils/Initializable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.2;

import "../../utils/AddressUpgradeable.sol";

/**
 * @dev This is a base contract to aid in writing upgradeable contracts, or any kind of contract that will be deployed
 * behind a proxy. Since proxied contracts do not make use of a constructor, it's common to move constructor logic to an
 * external initializer function, usually called `initialize`. It then becomes necessary to protect this initializer
 * function so it can only be called once. The {initializer} modifier provided by this contract will have this effect.
 *
 * The initialization functions use a version number. Once a version number is used, it is consumed and cannot be
 * reused. This mechanism prevents re-execution of each "step" but allows the creation of new initialization steps in
 * case an upgrade adds a module that needs to be initialized.
 *
 * For example:
 *
 * [.hljs-theme-light.nopadding]
 * ```
 * contract MyToken is ERC20Upgradeable {
 *     function initialize() initializer public {
 *         __ERC20_init("MyToken", "MTK");
 *     }
 * }
 * contract MyTokenV2 is MyToken, ERC20PermitUpgradeable {
 *     function initializeV2() reinitializer(2) public {
 *         __ERC20Permit_init("MyToken");
 *     }
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * TIP: To avoid leaving the proxy in an uninitialized state, the initializer function should be called as early as
 * possible by providing the encoded function call as the `_data` argument to {ERC1967Proxy-constructor}.
 *
 * CAUTION: When used with inheritance, manual care must be taken to not invoke a parent initializer twice, or to ensure
 * that all initializers are idempotent. This is not verified automatically as constructors are by Solidity.
 *
 * [CAUTION]
 * ====
 * Avoid leaving a contract uninitialized.
 *
 * An uninitialized contract can be taken over by an attacker. This applies to both a proxy and its implementation
 * contract, which may impact the proxy. To prevent the implementation contract from being used, you should invoke
 * the {_disableInitializers} function in the constructor to automatically lock it when it is deployed:
 *
 * [.hljs-theme-light.nopadding]
 * ```
 * /// @custom:oz-upgrades-unsafe-allow constructor
 * constructor() {
 *     _disableInitializers();
 * }
 * ```
 * ====
 */
abstract contract Initializable {
    /**
     * @dev Indicates that the contract has been initialized.
     * @custom:oz-retyped-from bool
     */
    uint8 private _initialized;

    /**
     * @dev Indicates that the contract is in the process of being initialized.
     */
    bool private _initializing;

    /**
     * @dev Triggered when the contract has been initialized or reinitialized.
     */
    event Initialized(uint8 version);

    /**
     * @dev A modifier that defines a protected initializer function that can be invoked at most once. In its scope,
     * `onlyInitializing` functions can be used to initialize parent contracts. Equivalent to `reinitializer(1)`.
     */
    modifier initializer() {
        bool isTopLevelCall = !_initializing;
        require(
            (isTopLevelCall && _initialized < 1) || (!AddressUpgradeable.isContract(address(this)) && _initialized == 1),
            "Initializable: contract is already initialized"
        );
        _initialized = 1;
        if (isTopLevelCall) {
            _initializing = true;
        }
        _;
        if (isTopLevelCall) {
            _initializing = false;
            emit Initialized(1);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev A modifier that defines a protected reinitializer function that can be invoked at most once, and only if the
     * contract hasn't been initialized to a greater version before. In its scope, `onlyInitializing` functions can be
     * used to initialize parent contracts.
     *
     * `initializer` is equivalent to `reinitializer(1)`, so a reinitializer may be used after the original
     * initialization step. This is essential to configure modules that are added through upgrades and that require
     * initialization.
     *
     * Note that versions can jump in increments greater than 1; this implies that if multiple reinitializers coexist in
     * a contract, executing them in the right order is up to the developer or operator.
     */
    modifier reinitializer(uint8 version) {
        require(!_initializing && _initialized < version, "Initializable: contract is already initialized");
        _initialized = version;
        _initializing = true;
        _;
        _initializing = false;
        emit Initialized(version);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Modifier to protect an initialization function so that it can only be invoked by functions with the
     * {initializer} and {reinitializer} modifiers, directly or indirectly.
     */
    modifier onlyInitializing() {
        require(_initializing, "Initializable: contract is not initializing");
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Locks the contract, preventing any future reinitialization. This cannot be part of an initializer call.
     * Calling this in the constructor of a contract will prevent that contract from being initialized or reinitialized
     * to any version. It is recommended to use this to lock implementation contracts that are designed to be called
     * through proxies.
     */
    function _disableInitializers() internal virtual {
        require(!_initializing, "Initializable: contract is initializing");
        if (_initialized < type(uint8).max) {
            _initialized = type(uint8).max;
            emit Initialized(type(uint8).max);
        }
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : IERC2981Upgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.6.0) (interfaces/IERC2981.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../utils/introspection/IERC165Upgradeable.sol";

/**
 * @dev Interface for the NFT Royalty Standard.
 *
 * A standardized way to retrieve royalty payment information for non-fungible tokens (NFTs) to enable universal
 * support for royalty payments across all NFT marketplaces and ecosystem participants.
 *
 * _Available since v4.5._
 */
interface IERC2981Upgradeable is IERC165Upgradeable {
    /**
     * @dev Returns how much royalty is owed and to whom, based on a sale price that may be denominated in any unit of
     * exchange. The royalty amount is denominated and should be paid in that same unit of exchange.
     */
    function royaltyInfo(uint256 tokenId, uint256 salePrice)
        external
        view
        returns (address receiver, uint256 royaltyAmount);
}

File 2 of 23 : ERC165Upgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/introspection/ERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC165Upgradeable.sol";
import "../../proxy/utils/Initializable.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC165} interface.
 *
 * Contracts that want to implement ERC165 should inherit from this contract and override {supportsInterface} to check
 * for the additional interface id that will be supported. For example:
 *
 * ```solidity
 * function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
 *     return interfaceId == type(MyInterface).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * Alternatively, {ERC165Storage} provides an easier to use but more expensive implementation.
 */
abstract contract ERC165Upgradeable is Initializable, IERC165Upgradeable {
    function __ERC165_init() internal onlyInitializing {
    }

    function __ERC165_init_unchained() internal onlyInitializing {
    }
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IERC165Upgradeable).interfaceId;
    }

    /**
     * @dev This empty reserved space is put in place to allow future versions to add new
     * variables without shifting down storage in the inheritance chain.
     * See https://docs.openzeppelin.com/contracts/4.x/upgradeable#storage_gaps
     */
    uint256[50] private __gap;
}

File 2 of 23 : IERC165Upgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/introspection/IERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC165 standard, as defined in the
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165[EIP].
 *
 * Implementers can declare support of contract interfaces, which can then be
 * queried by others ({ERC165Checker}).
 *
 * For an implementation, see {ERC165}.
 */
interface IERC165Upgradeable {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified[EIP section]
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30 000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view returns (bool);
}

File 2 of 23 : Strings.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (utils/Strings.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev String operations.
 */
library Strings {
    bytes16 private constant _HEX_SYMBOLS = "0123456789abcdef";
    uint8 private constant _ADDRESS_LENGTH = 20;

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` decimal representation.
     */
    function toString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        // Inspired by OraclizeAPI's implementation - MIT licence
        // https://github.com/oraclize/ethereum-api/blob/b42146b063c7d6ee1358846c198246239e9360e8/oraclizeAPI_0.4.25.sol

        if (value == 0) {
            return "0";
        }
        uint256 temp = value;
        uint256 digits;
        while (temp != 0) {
            digits++;
            temp /= 10;
        }
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(digits);
        while (value != 0) {
            digits -= 1;
            buffer[digits] = bytes1(uint8(48 + uint256(value % 10)));
            value /= 10;
        }
        return string(buffer);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        if (value == 0) {
            return "0x00";
        }
        uint256 temp = value;
        uint256 length = 0;
        while (temp != 0) {
            length++;
            temp >>= 8;
        }
        return toHexString(value, length);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation with fixed length.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value, uint256 length) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(2 * length + 2);
        buffer[0] = "0";
        buffer[1] = "x";
        for (uint256 i = 2 * length + 1; i > 1; --i) {
            buffer[i] = _HEX_SYMBOLS[value & 0xf];
            value >>= 4;
        }
        require(value == 0, "Strings: hex length insufficient");
        return string(buffer);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts an `address` with fixed length of 20 bytes to its not checksummed ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(address addr) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        return toHexString(uint256(uint160(addr)), _ADDRESS_LENGTH);
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : ECDSAUpgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../StringsUpgradeable.sol";

/**
 * @dev Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) operations.
 *
 * These functions can be used to verify that a message was signed by the holder
 * of the private keys of a given address.
 */
library ECDSAUpgradeable {
    enum RecoverError {
        NoError,
        InvalidSignature,
        InvalidSignatureLength,
        InvalidSignatureS,
        InvalidSignatureV
    }

    function _throwError(RecoverError error) private pure {
        if (error == RecoverError.NoError) {
            return; // no error: do nothing
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignature) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature length");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature 's' value");
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureV) {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature 'v' value");
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature` or error string. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM opcode allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     *
     * Documentation for signature generation:
     * - with https://web3js.readthedocs.io/en/v1.3.4/web3-eth-accounts.html#sign[Web3.js]
     * - with https://docs.ethers.io/v5/api/signer/#Signer-signMessage[ethers]
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        // Check the signature length
        // - case 65: r,s,v signature (standard)
        // - case 64: r,vs signature (cf https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098) _Available since v4.1._
        if (signature.length == 65) {
            bytes32 r;
            bytes32 s;
            uint8 v;
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                s := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
                v := byte(0, mload(add(signature, 0x60)))
            }
            return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        } else if (signature.length == 64) {
            bytes32 r;
            bytes32 vs;
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                vs := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
            }
            return tryRecover(hash, r, vs);
        } else {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature`. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM opcode allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     */
    function recover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, signature);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `r` and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     *
     * See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098[EIP-2098 short signatures]
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(
        bytes32 hash,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 vs
    ) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        bytes32 s = vs & bytes32(0x7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff);
        uint8 v = uint8((uint256(vs) >> 255) + 27);
        return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `r and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     *
     * _Available since v4.2._
     */
    function recover(
        bytes32 hash,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 vs
    ) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, r, vs);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     *
     * _Available since v4.3._
     */
    function tryRecover(
        bytes32 hash,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError) {
        // EIP-2 still allows signature malleability for ecrecover(). Remove this possibility and make the signature
        // unique. Appendix F in the Ethereum Yellow paper (https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf), defines
        // the valid range for s in (301): 0 < s < secp256k1n ÷ 2 + 1, and for v in (302): v ∈ {27, 28}. Most
        // signatures from current libraries generate a unique signature with an s-value in the lower half order.
        //
        // If your library generates malleable signatures, such as s-values in the upper range, calculate a new s-value
        // with 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEBAAEDCE6AF48A03BBFD25E8CD0364141 - s1 and flip v from 27 to 28 or
        // vice versa. If your library also generates signatures with 0/1 for v instead 27/28, add 27 to v to accept
        // these malleable signatures as well.
        if (uint256(s) > 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF5D576E7357A4501DDFE92F46681B20A0) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS);
        }
        if (v != 27 && v != 28) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureV);
        }

        // If the signature is valid (and not malleable), return the signer address
        address signer = ecrecover(hash, v, r, s);
        if (signer == address(0)) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignature);
        }

        return (signer, RecoverError.NoError);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     */
    function recover(
        bytes32 hash,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error) = tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        _throwError(error);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Message, created from a `hash`. This
     * produces hash corresponding to the one signed with the
     * https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-191.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes32 hash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        // 32 is the length in bytes of hash,
        // enforced by the type signature above
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n32", hash));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Message, created from `s`. This
     * produces hash corresponding to the one signed with the
     * https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-191.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes memory s) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n", StringsUpgradeable.toString(s.length), s));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Typed Data, created from a
     * `domainSeparator` and a `structHash`. This produces hash corresponding
     * to the one signed with the
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[`eth_signTypedData`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-712.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toTypedDataHash(bytes32 domainSeparator, bytes32 structHash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19\x01", domainSeparator, structHash));
    }
}

File 2 of 23 : StringsUpgradeable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (utils/Strings.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev String operations.
 */
library StringsUpgradeable {
    bytes16 private constant _HEX_SYMBOLS = "0123456789abcdef";
    uint8 private constant _ADDRESS_LENGTH = 20;

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` decimal representation.
     */
    function toString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        // Inspired by OraclizeAPI's implementation - MIT licence
        // https://github.com/oraclize/ethereum-api/blob/b42146b063c7d6ee1358846c198246239e9360e8/oraclizeAPI_0.4.25.sol

        if (value == 0) {
            return "0";
        }
        uint256 temp = value;
        uint256 digits;
        while (temp != 0) {
            digits++;
            temp /= 10;
        }
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(digits);
        while (value != 0) {
            digits -= 1;
            buffer[digits] = bytes1(uint8(48 + uint256(value % 10)));
            value /= 10;
        }
        return string(buffer);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        if (value == 0) {
            return "0x00";
        }
        uint256 temp = value;
        uint256 length = 0;
        while (temp != 0) {
            length++;
            temp >>= 8;
        }
        return toHexString(value, length);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation with fixed length.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value, uint256 length) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(2 * length + 2);
        buffer[0] = "0";
        buffer[1] = "x";
        for (uint256 i = 2 * length + 1; i > 1; --i) {
            buffer[i] = _HEX_SYMBOLS[value & 0xf];
            value >>= 4;
        }
        require(value == 0, "Strings: hex length insufficient");
        return string(buffer);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts an `address` with fixed length of 20 bytes to its not checksummed ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(address addr) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        return toHexString(uint256(uint160(addr)), _ADDRESS_LENGTH);
    }
}

Settings
{
  "metadata": {
    "bytecodeHash": "none",
    "useLiteralContent": true
  },
  "optimizer": {
    "enabled": true,
    "runs": 200
  },
  "outputSelection": {
    "*": {
      "*": [
        "evm.bytecode",
        "evm.deployedBytecode",
        "devdoc",
        "userdoc",
        "metadata",
        "abi"
      ]
    }
  },
  "libraries": {}
}

Contract ABI

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A contract address hosts a smart contract, which is a set of code stored on the blockchain that runs when predetermined conditions are met. Learn more about addresses in our Knowledge Base.